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1) (I) Cheetah is a common name for a large cat, found mainly in Africa but with small populations in Iran. (II)The head and body, without the tail, are about 1.1 to 1.5 m long, and the claws are short. (III) The coat is yellowish-brown with black spots; cubs also have a spotted coat. (IV) The female cheetah’s pregnancy lasts three months. (V) On the other hand, mature males generally travel alone or in groups of two to three males.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

2) (I) In the autumn of 1963 Kennedy began to plan his strategy for re-election. (II) He flew across the country extolling the improvements in US-Soviet relations. (III) On November 22, while riding in an open limousine through Dallas, Texas, Kennedy was shot in the head and neck by a sniper or snipers. (IV) The murder has already finished, but the debate about the assassin is still current today. (V) He was rushed to Parkland Memorial Hospital, where efforts to revive him failed.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

3) (I) Raleigh, Sir Walter is an English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I. (II) Raleigh attended the University of Oxford for a time and served in the French religious wars on the Huguenot side. (III) Raleigh first came to Queen Elizabeth’s attention through his work in Ireland. (IV) Later, he became familiar with both court life and the intellectual community. (V) These experiences assisted him in producing outstanding traces.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

4) (I) In the interval 1960-80, space missions to Mars were the major objective of the U.S. and Soviet programs for the exploration of the solar system. (II) U.S. spacecraft successfully flew by Mars and orbited the planet. (III) Three Soviet probes also investigated Mars, two of them reaching its surface. (IV) Mars 3 was the first spacecraft to soft-land an instrumented capsule on the planet on Dec. 2, 1971. (V) In 1988, Soviet scientists launched a pair of spacecraft, Phobos 1 and Phobos 2, to orbit Mars.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

5) (I) Parachute, in terminology, comes from French, para, “preventing”; chute, “fall”. (II) It is a large, umbrella-shaped fabric canopy used to reduce the speed of a person. (III) The use of the parachute was first suggested by Leonardo da Vinci. (IV) The French aeronaut Jean Pierre Blanchard dropped a dog equipped with a parachute from a balloon in 1785, and in 1793 claimed to have made the first successful human parachute descent. (V) However, the first practical parachute was invented in the 1780s.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

6) (I) Paradoxically, the Cold War secured military peace in Europe for almost 50 years. (II) Cold War is the post-1945 struggle between two blocs of nations led by the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (III) Direct military conflict did not occur between the two superpowers. (IV) Instead of that, intense economic and diplomatic struggles erupted. (V) Different interests led to mutual suspicion and hostility in an escalating rivalry rooted in ideology.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
7) (I) Elegy refers to a lyric poem lamenting the death of someone. (II) A good example is Tennyson’s “In Memoriam” a sequence of lyrics on the death of Arthur Hallam. (III) A pastoral elegy is a kind of elegy which has a rural setting with shepherds and nymps. (IV) Homer’s Riad and Odysiey are the examples of literary epics. (V) This kind of elegy has numerous conventions, such as nature joining in the lament or a procession of mourners.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

8) (I) The Iraqi attack began shortly after midnight on August 2. (II) By dawn Iraq had assumed control of Kuwait city with one policy. (III) Any armed attempt to roll back the Iraqi invasion depended on Saudi Arabia, which shares a border with both Iraq and Kuwait. (IV) When this claim attracted neither Kuwaiti nor international support, it was dropped. (V) In place of the Sabahs, most of whom fled during the invasion, Iraq installed a puppet government.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

9) (I) The Swiss live in close proximity to the mountains, which are well linked by road and rail to the urban areas. (II) Hence, they have become extremely sport-conscious and have encouraged the growth of skiing and mountaineering as tourist attractions. (III) Other sports include Swiss-style wrestling, gliding, para-gliding, hang gliding, walking in the forests and mountains…etc. (IV) Fishing is a general activity favoured by a lot of people. (V) When certain mountain lakes freeze over, they are used for curling and even horse racing.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

10) (I) World War I is a military conflict that began as a local European war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia on July 28, 1914. (II) The fundamental causes of the conflict, however, were rooted deeply in the European history of the previous century (III) Hence, it became a global war involving 32 nations. (IV) Twenty-eight of these nations, known as the Allies and the Associated Powers opposed the coalition known as the Central Powers. (V) They were consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

11) (I) John Bell is an American statesman, born near Nashville, Tennessee, and educated at Cumberland College. (II) He practised law and served in the Tennessee Senate before entering the United States House of Representatives in 1827 as a Democrat. (III) From 1847 to 1859 Bell served in the US Senate as a Whig. (IV) Bell left the House in March 1841 to join the cabinet of President William H. Harrison. (V) However, he resigned the following September because of a split between the Whigs and President John Tyler, who had succeeded Harrison.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

12) (I) Photography is the production of permanent images by means of the action of light on sensitized surfaces, giving rise to a new form of visual art, historical document, and scientific tool. (II) The history of photographic image-making is the story of the diverse applications of a new and constantly evolving technology. (III) It is a history that includes images at every point on the scale between utilitarian scientific and historical documents and pictures conceived with the highest artistic ambitions. (IV) Parallel to it is the history of photographic techniques, in which constant expansion of the technical resources available to photographers led to an ever-increasing range of aesthetic possibilities. (V) At first, photographers leaned heavily on the conventions of picture-making learned from traditional media.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

13) (I) All societies have vocal music; and with few exceptions, all have instruments. (II) In composition—the principal creative act in music—something that is considered new is produced by combining the musical elements that a given society recognizes as a system. (III) Innovation as a criterion of good composing is important in Western culture. (IV) In Western music, composition is normally carried out with the help of notation. (V) However, in much popular music, and particularly in folk, tribal, and most non-Western cultures, composition is done in the mind of the composer, who may sing or use an instrument as an aid, and is transmitted orally and memorized.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

14) (I) Beowulf is an Anglo-Saxon epic poem which is the most important work of Old English literature and the first major poem written in a European vernacular language. (II) The sombre story is told in vigorous, picturesque language, with much use of metaphor. (III) The only surviving manuscript is in the British Museum. (IV) So, it is written in the West Saxon dialect and is believed to date from the late 10th century. (V) On the basis of this text, Beowulf is generally considered the work of an 8th-century Anglian poet.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

15) (I) Figure of Speech is the word or the group of words used to give particular emphasis to an idea or sentiment. (II) The special emphasis is typically accomplished by the user’s conscious deviation from the strict literal sense of a word. (III) From ancient times to the present, such figurative locutions have been extensively employed by orators and writers to strengthen and embellish their styles of speech and composition. (IV) A number of the more widely used figures of speech, some of which are also called tropes. (V) On the other hand, Apostrophe is a device by which an actor turns from the audience to address a person who is usually either absent or deceased object, or an abstract idea.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

16) (I) Until the 19th century, the primary focus in most stories had been on the “what happened” element. (II) Now writers began to concentrate on the motivations that propelled characters into conflict. (III) Poe was the first writer to so define the short story, in his review of Hawthorne’s Twice-Told Tales. (IV) At the same time, attention was directed to techniques of economic storytelling: artful structuring of events. (V) As a result, the system of organising the order of events during the story has become fashionable.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

17) (I) Chekhov, Anton Pavlovich is a Russian dramatist and short-story writer, who is one of the foremost figures in Russian literature. (II) The son of a merchant, Chekhov was born on January 29, 1860, in Taganrog, Ukraine, and educated in medicine at Moscow State University. (III) While still at university he published humorous magazine stories and sketches. (IV) He rarely practised medicine because of his success as a writer. (V) He was largely responsible for the modern type of short story that depends for effect on mood and symbolism rather than on plot.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

18) (I) Tragic drama as we know it today is said to have been originated in the 6th century BC by the Athenian poet Aeschylus. (II) Aeschylus, for the first time, introduced the role of a second actor, apart from the chorus. (III) The second great Greek tragedian was Sophocles, the fine construction of whose plots led Aristotle as well as other Greek critics to consider him the greatest writer of tragedy. (III) His tragedies, numbering about 90, treat such lofty themes as the nature of divinity and the relations of human beings to the gods. (IV) Only seven of his tragedies are extant, including Prometheus Bound, the story of the punishment of Prometheus, one of the Titans, by the god Zeus.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

19) (I) To his students, Plutarch was regarded as a genial guide, philosopher, and spiritual director. (II) Plutarch is the Greek biographer and essayist, born in Chaeronea in Boeotia. (III) He was educated in Athens and is believed to have travelled to Egypt and Italy and to have lectured in Rome on moral philosophy. (IV) He frequently visited Athens and was a priest in the temple at Delphi. (V) He spent the later years of his life at Chaeronea, where he held municipal office.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

20) (I) The literature of Rome was itself modelled on Greek literature and served in turn as the basic model, especially in the Renaissance, for the development of later European literatures. (II) Because of their close formal dependence on Greek models, Roman writers were concerned with emphasizing the specifically Roman quality of their experience. (III) The greatest accomplishments of Roman literature are found in epic and lyric poetry, rhetoric, history, comic drama. (IV) Latin literature began with Livius Andronicus, who came to Rome as a Greek-speaking slave. (V) Of all these, satire has been the last genre being the only literary form the Romans invented.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

21) (I) Most of the key words commonly used to describe governments, words such as monarchy, oligarchy, and democracy, are of Greek or Roman origin. (II) They have been current for more than 2,000 years and have not yet exhausted their usefulness. (III) This suggests that mankind has not changed very much since they were coined. (IV) With only minor altering, human being used the term of monarchy in their political affairs. (V) The earliest analytical use of the term monarchy occurred in ancient Athens, chiefly in Plato’s dialogues, but even in Plato’s time the word was not self-explanatory.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

22) (I) Cuckoo is a common name for birds of the large and diverse cuckoo family found on every continent except Antarctica. (II) The common cuckoo of Europe and Asia is the species in which the male’s two-note call has been invoked in many musical compositions as well as in cuckoo clocks. (III) It is a long-tailed bird of about 33 cm, ash-grey above and white, closely barred with dark grey. (IV) None of the North American species of cuckoos is a brood parasite. (V) This species, like many other cuckoos, is a brood parasite; the female lays her 15 to 20 eggs singly in the nests of other birds—each female specializing in one particular host—which raise the young cuckoos, usually at the expense of their own young.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

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