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OKUMA TEST 1

TEST – 1

The vegetarian diet is becoming increasingly popular all the time. Is the vegetarian or meat diet better? A decade ago and earlier, the impression was that a vegetarian diet was lacking in the nutrients found in meat products. Today though, through research and nutritional science, it has been proven that all the nutrients found in meat may at the same time be found in the correct vegetarian diet. Some may argue that by only consuming meat that is low in fat, meat and vegetarian diets have identical benefits. This is true only if one eats only very low fat meat. The lack of meat is not necessarily the main benefit of to the vegetarian. Vegetarians tend to eat more fruits, vegetables and grains than the meat eater. They also tend not to use tobacco and excessive alcohol. Moreover, vegetarians tend to get more exercise.

1) It is clear from the passage that meat and vegetarian diets have similar benefits …….
A) if the term vegetarian cannot be misleading
B) only if very low fat meat is eaten
C) as long as diet can take on many different variations
D) if a vegetarian consumes the same dairy products
E) because the term vegetarian is used to cover all facets and variations

2) It has been alleged that vegetarians do not only benefit from not eating meat in fact, ……..
A) but other factors probably include exercise and resistance to smoking and alcohol intake
B) but the partial vegetarian eats anything except red meat
C) this is most likely due to the low fat and high carbohydrate content of their diet as well
D) they usually have lower blood pressure than meat eaters as well
E) they also benefit from not using tobacco and excessive alcohol while getting more exercise

3) In the past it was claimed that the nutrients found in meat products weren’t found in a vegetarian diet…….
A) but it is proved to be wrong through research today
B) the last major benefit of the vegetarian diet is its relationship to cancer rate reduction
C) however the vegetarian diets advantages greatly outweigh its shortcomings
D) whether a meat eater or vegetarian, both diets may contribute to good health with proper planning
E) there are advantages and drawbacks to both diets

A social anxiety disorder or social phobia is the constant fear of being criticized or evaluated by other people. People with a social phobia are nervous, anxious, and afraid about many social situations. Simply attending a business meeting or going to a company party can be highly nerve wracking and intimidating. Despite the fact that people with social anxiety want very much to be social with everybody else, their anxiety about not doing well in public is strong and hinders their best efforts. They freeze up when they meet new people, particularly authority figures. They are particularly afraid that other people will notice that they are anxious, so this fear enables the anxiety to grow and turn into a vicious cycle.

4) Even though people with social anxiety want very much to be social with everybody else ……….
A) who is conscious of the fact that people might be staring at them
B) everyone is scared of something
C) everyone experiences nervousness, anxiety and even in superior feelings around certain people
D) they cannot overcome a social phobia without the patient first grasping exactly what triggers their fears
E) they cannot achieve it because of lack of self confidence

5) For someone with a social phobia, attending a business meeting or going to a company party may be highly nerve wracking and intimidating ……
A) as some people possess these feelings so deeply that their fear is considered irrational
B) Even they realize that it is illogical and that they have a phobia
C) because of being the centre of attraction
D) since a social phobia is the fear of social situations and the interactions with other people
E) for millions of people suffer from phobias every day of their lives.

6) People with a social phobia are nervous, anxious, and afraid about many social situations
A) and then learning how to get proper help
B) since many symptoms go hand in hand with this terrible phobia
C) because they are sure they are making a fool of themselves
D) since they are afraid of being criticized or evaluated by other people
E) for self-consciousness and anxiety rise to extremes

Although just a few years ago, most people regarded talk shows as ridiculous, now this chant is recognized and adored by many people in society. The most careful explanation for this is that the shows now have more interesting and captivating topics. The basis of most episodes of these shows has changed greatly over the past few years; The topics have moved away from large scale social issues, like homosexuality and cancer, to relationship and familial issues, like adultery and mothers that are too teasing with their daughter’s boyfriends. Most people would argue that the issues being presented now are not as interesting or captivating as the older issues.

7) In spite of the fact that many people in society find today’s talk show issues interesting ……
A) the general emotional content of the episodes has changed from sadness to anger
B) there are many people who find the older issues much more interesting and charming
C) there are many influences that cause extreme anger to be displayed by the guests on “talk shows”
D) the anxiety which you experienced is gone and replaced by anger, intense anger
E) not knowing what to expect, when you are nervous and anxious

8) Talk shows that were considered to be ridiculous beforehand ………..
A) are taken into consideration today
B) the emotions displayed by the guests in the newer shows are more visible
C) usually framed some questions in a certain way
D) but there are many psychological explanations for the increasing anger experienced by the guests on a talk show
E) they frequently use this framing effect to try to get the response which is more favourable for the interviewer or surveyor

9) The most significant reason which talk shows are recognized and adored by many people in society is that……
A) nothing seems awkward in these shows
B) questions can be phrased in different ways eliciting different responses
C) there is a strong correlation between the anger of his guests and the ratings
D) talk shows have interesting and charming topics
E) the question is framed in such a way that any answer given to it would evoke or intensify anger

The belief that one’s own nation is superior or at least the strongest helped to create a feeling of patriotism and pride among the lower classes. I believe that the spread of nationalism throughout European society was a positive development. Nationalism helped to unite people with a common history and culture. It instilled pride and confidence among nations and gave people a sense of being. Contrary to the other ideologies of the time, nationalism proposed self- sacrifice for the good of others. However, I believe that at the beginning of the 20th century the idea of Social Darwinism corrupted it and permitted nationalism to be twisted by those who would exploit it.

10) In the beginning of the 20th century, when the idea of Social Darwinism came into scene
A) but, overall it had a positive effect on European society.
B) nationalism declined
C) it offered something to believe in when there wasn’t much to believe in
D) there seems to be quite a bit more substantial proof on earth to support the theory of evolution
E) because of the fact actual samples of fossils have been collected and scientifically tested

11) It can be concluded from the paragraph that……….
A) the time periods show differences in bone structure showing the human evolving
B) the more a creature can adapt to it’s environment the greater chance it has of living
C) there was no self-sacrifice for the good of others in other ideologies
D) Charles Darwin had conducted extensive research into the environmental adoptions of animals
E) this theory helps to prove the theory that humans evolved from apes

12) It is obvious from the passage that nationalism which helped to unite people with a common history and culture …….
A) the evidence of holding up much more
B) which can then be examined and placed along a timeline.
C) which is called environmental adaptation
D) to show an increase in population called survival of the fittest
E) gave people a sense of being

In today’s materialistic driven society, people are judged in every probable aspect. From their appearance, background, social status, way of thinking to their friends, families. The necessity to be accepted and admired by others captivates the minds of many men and women of today. This conquest for social acceptance becomes so real that the idea then becomes an obsession. The way we look plays a big role in our lives. It determines the way others see us and from that, it will then determine how we feel about ourselves. One main supporter of appearance is our weight.

13) The way that we look plays such a big role in our lives that……
A) it determines the way others see us
B) they can look good for other people
C) they don’t even admire them for their inner being
D) we ourselves abuse our health and bodies
E) there have been ways and tactics created by man

14) It has been claimed by the author that ……
A) but this applies to men as well
B) men and women are obsessed with their weights
C) your body needs to maintain itself
D) the struggle for social acceptance becomes a passion for people
E) what makes a person beautiful is the person as a whole

15) According to the paragraph the way which we look determines ……
A) exercising and eating right is a better healthier way to do
B) to see you are beautiful people
C) their mind, personality, attitude…being in his or herself
D) an empty-headed person who would harm themselves
E) how we feel about ourselves

The nineteenth century was a period of great change and accompanying social unrest in the British Isles. Most outstanding among the changes was the industrial revolution. As everything in life, it brought good, but it brought evil as well. The industrial revolution combined with the expansion of the British Empire made the United Kingdom, the richest and most powerful country in the world. Some of the islanders became unbelievably wealthy, but others, unfortunately, became unbelievably poor. Authors from this historical period aware of the human suffering, became social critics of what was taking place in England, of how the rich and powerful became more oppressive than before and how the very poor, were evenly more oppressed. Among these authors were Charles Dickens and George Eliot.

16) Even though the British Empire became the richest and most powerful country in the world
A) it describes the conflict and battle between these two groups
B) the gap between the rich and the poor increased after the industrial revolution
C) the factory workers and miners lacked basic human rights and their idea and beliefs were discarded
D) political candidates gave false hopes and promises so as to sway the opinion of people
E) a change for the good of the workers was provided

17) The most significant change of the nineteenth century was the industrial revolution ……….
A) claiming that their support of the radical movement would improve their lives
B) which would be used to rebuild estate and support political actions
C) being a radical, improvement, alter and modernization
D) which had modern opinions and ideas to alter the outcome of society
E) which brought both good and evil in life

18) It is easy to comprehend from the paragraph that improvement of industry in the British Isles………
A) wanted change and reform
B) caused social unrest as well
C) which forced society to choose what side would represent them
D) caused conflict in which people would only associate with individuals
E) despite the vast obstacle there was

Witnesses report many, many different shapes and sizes of UFO’s, even shape changing ones. The famous “Two bowls joined at the rim” shape is reported frequently, but reports of objects shaped like cigars, squares, balls, triangles, rings, and GUITARS are also common. Many of these reports are of objects from far away, but reports of close encounters also exist. Some of the most interesting sightings, are reported on or near the ground. Often the person claims that the ship left a mark or something on the ground, this is called a “Trace Case”.

19) In accordance with the paragraph,…..
A) these reports, however, have to be separated from others
B) a study of these reports are random and show no pattern
C) these reports have come from people living in rural areas
D) claims of witnessing a UFO have come from considerate, reliable people
E) most of the unknown flying objects are reported to have been on or near the ground

20) According to the paragraph, even although most of reported UFO’s quite imaginative …….
A) there were real definitions as well
B) they claim they have been a part of the Alien Brotherhood
C) the U.S. Air Force attempted to study UFO’s
D) the UFOs did not represent a threat to the United States
E) they never considered any of this to be a unique phenomenon

21) Although there were many reports about different shapes and sizes of UFO’s …….
A) men learned a great amount of things from doing this project
B) there are many people out there studying these sightings, and reports
C) the most widespread was “Two bowls joined at the rim”
D) all of the UFO stuff is just abnormal weather conditions
E) are just waiting to be found out.

In the 1600’s, when tobacco was founded by John Rolfe, tobacco suddenly became the major source of income for most of the colonists. The economic prosperity of the colonies was primarily dependent on the amount of tobacco produced. The growing of tobacco required a large amount of land, with a large stable work force. The increased demand for a large, stable work force combined with the availability of African slaves, led to the use of slavery in the colonies.

22) It can be concluded that the economic prosperity of the colonies was primarily dependent on the amount of tobacco produced …….
A) and then the availability of African slaves as a work force
B) but planters of tobacco had an abundance of land and a shortage of labour
C) however the servants were running away from their masters’ farms
D) which was a major factor in the consideration of slaves on plantation
E) because tobacco was a plant that exhausts nutrients from the soil

23) The growing of tobacco in the colonies ……….
A) would be easier for slaves owing to the colour of their skin
B) was the ideal form of labour that would be most beneficial to productivity of any crop
C) required both a large amount of land and a large stable work
D) had a tradition of farming, and main agricultural skills.
E) needed to be educated on certain agricultural techniques

24) It can be inferred from the paragraph that……….
A) modern farming methods led to the rotation of crops
B) planters had to know how to make the land most productive
C) the slaves would only require to be educated once
D) the African slaves also had other characteristics
E) slavery started when tobacco was founded by John Rolfe in the sixteenth century

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