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TEST – 13

Although the interpretation of traffic signals may seem highly standardized, close observation reveals regional variations across this country, distinguishing the East Coast from Central Canada and the West as surely as dominant dialects or political inclinations. In Montreal, a flashing red traffic light instructs drivers to careen even more wildly through intersections heavily populated with pedestrians and oncoming vehicles. In startling contrast, an amber light in Calgary warns drivers to scream to a halt on the off chance that there might be a pedestrian within 600 meters who might consider crossing at some unspecified time within the current day. In my hometown in New Brunswick, finally, traffic lights do not apply to tractors, all terrain vehicles, or pickup trucks, which together account for most vehicles on the road. In fact, were any observant Canadian dropped from an alien space vessel at an unspecified intersection anywhere in this vast land, he or she could almost certainly orient him-or-herself according to the surrounding traffic patterns.

1. What we can-infer from the passage that
A) If you stopped at a yellow light in Calgary, you would have to shout to warn the animals not to cross.
B) In New Brunswick, traffic lights strictly apply to all vehicles.
C) A flashing red traffic light in Montreal would mean to go straight among the crowd.
D) Traffic signals do not mean same across different parts of Canada.
E) Being unaware of the regional variations about the traffic signals would be an excuse at the traffic court.

2. As understood from the passage, distinctive characteristics among the East Coast, Central Canada and the West include
A) Linguistic variety
B) Traditional way of clothing.
C) Pedestrians
D) Traffic police
E) Vehicles

3. According to the passage, any alert Canadian could
A) drive a space vessel.
B) give direction to an alien space vessel at an intersection in Canada.
C) drive all kinds of vehicles but tractors at intersections.
D) get a license to drive all kinds of vehicles.
E) adapt himself or herself to the traffic system anywhere in Canada easily.

There are two main types of concrete dams: arch dams and gravity dams. Arch dams are tall, curved shells of concrete that can be as little as 3 meters thick. Their arched shape gives them great strength. Large gravity dams are also made of concrete, but it is their vast weight that prevents them from bursting. The largest dams are embankment dams, which are made by piling up a huge barrier of earth and rock. A core of clay or concrete in the middle keeps water from seeping though the dam. The side is covered with stones to protect it from water. Rogunsky Dam in the Soviet Union is the world’s highest dam. It. is 326 meters high. Hoover Dam, one of the world’s highest concrete dams, measures 223 meters in height. It is an arch dam that spans the Colorado River and supplies water for irrigation and electricity to California, Arizona and Nevada.

4. It can be understood from the passage that gravity dams differ from the arch dams in that gravity dams are
A) thicker than arch dams
B) not as sturdy as arch dams
C) not as attractive as arch dams
D) made of a different material that arch dams
E) not flexible arc-like structured dams

5. According to the passage, the water supplied from Hoover Dam is used for
A) strength and support
B) irrigation and electricity
C) protection and irrigation
D) electricity and support
E) protection and decontamination

6. According to the passage, the core of clay in the centre of an embankment dam serves which purpose?
A) To support the structure
B) To hold the side together
C) To form the shape of the dam
D) To prevent water seepage
E) To enable to block the sewage system

The Railway was not the first institution to impose regularity on society, or to draw attention to the importance of precise timekeeping. For as long as merchants have set out their wares at daybreak and communal festivities have been celebrated, people have been in rough agreement with their neighbours as to the time of day. The value of this tradition is today more apparent than ever. Were it not for public acceptance of a single yardstick of time, social life would be unbearably chaotic: the massive daily transfers of goods, services, and information would proceed in fits and starts; the very fabric of modern society would begin to unravel.

7. The passage is written to
A) explain the importance of Railways for commuters.
B) explain the importance of Railways in social life.
C) explain the importance of Railways for commerce
D) explain the importance of Railways for travellers.
E) explain the importance of Railways for merchants.

8. What is the main idea of the passage?
A) In modern society we must make more time for our neighbours.
B) The traditions of society are timeless.
C) An accepted way of measuring time .’is essential for the smooth functioning of society.
D) Society judges people by the times at which they conduct certain activities.
E) In a traditional society we can abuse our neighbours more.

9. In the passage, how the tradition of punctuality in the society emphasized
A) by the practice of starting the business day at dawn
B) by friendly relations between neighbours
C) by the Railway’s reliance on time schedules
D) by people’s agreement on the measurement of time
E) by stressing on the punishment on the violators

The way emperor penguins care for and protect their unhatched eggs is one of the wonders of nature. The only land creatures able to survive the Antarctic winter, these birds must care for their young while withstanding 24-hour darkness, gale-strength winds, and temperatures of 85 to 95 degrees below zero. Each year, at the start of the Antarctic autumn, female emperor penguins each lay a single egg on bare ice. Then, after transferring care of the eggs to their mates, they take off across the open ice for the nearest fishing site. The males spend the next 65 days with neither food nor light, living off their considerable body fat and balancing the eggs on their feet under a protective flap of skin. During this time, they adapt to the brutal temperatures by huddling together in flocks of hundreds. Although penguins are unable to fly, they are superb swimmers. If all goes well, the females return from the sea with a meal of fish just as the eggs are hatching.

10. Which of the following best summarizes the main points of the passage?
A) The brutal climatic conditions of the Antarctic prevent female emperor penguins from producing more than one egg a year.
B) During the bitter Antarctic winter, male emperor penguins protect unhatched eggs, while females hunt for food.
C) A major difference between emperor penguins and other species of birds is that females rather than males are responsible for food gathering.
D) Without their substantial body fat, emperor penguins could not feed their young during harsh Antarctic winters.
E) Emperor penguins live in the Antarctic, where they manage to survive by fishing for food and huddling together for warmth.

11. According to information presented in the passage, the relationship between male and female emperor penguins is best characterized by
A) indifference to each other’s needs.
B) female dominance resulting from their role as food gatherers.
C) a competitive struggle for survival.
D) male dependence on female food-gathering activities.
E) a clear division of responsibilities between males and females.
12. The author calls emperor penguins wonderful animals because
A) they are superb swimmers.
B) they can survive under extreme cold
C) their way of protecting their eggs is really amazing.
D) they are very good at catching fish.
E) they have a protective flap of skin.

Although Dorothy Wordsworth was convinced that her journal entries were not literature, they were seamlessly incorporated by her brother William into some of his most famous poems, altered only by his use of the first-person pronoun, the “I.” The important question concerning the relationship between Dorothy and William, however, is not whether William’s borrowings constituted exploitation, but rather how the relationship contributed to Dorothy’s inability to conceive of herself as a writer. Traditionally in literature, the authorial self, the “I,” is identifiably masculine. The dominated “other” is feminine. In William’s poems, the “other” is usually Nature, often personified as Dorothy. While these literary roles helped to sustain the close relationship between the two in real life, they also reinforced Dorothy’s acceptance of the norms, which defined her as “other.” Thus, her access to authorial self-consciousness was blocked not just by the fact of her gender, but also by her accepted role in her brother’s life and poetry.

13. The passage is primarily about answering which of the following questions?
A)Whether Dorothy Wordsworth was aware of her role in her relationship with William Wordsworth.
B)Whether Dorothy Wordsworth was exploited by her brother’s use of her journal entries.
C)How William Wordsworth altered Dorothy Wordsworth’s writings for inclusion in his poems.
D)Whether the relationship between Dorothy and William Wordsworth was psychologically harmful.
E)How Dorothy Wordsworth’s relationship to her brother reinforced her assumptions about herself.

14. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes which of the following about Dorothy Wordsworth’s journal entries?
“A) They are praiseworthy but not literature.
B) They are only about her relationship with her brother.
C) They are more moving than her brother’s poetry.
D) They surpass her own estimation of their merit.
E) They borrow many ideas from her brother’s work.

15. Which of the following best captures the meaning of the word “self-consciousness” as it is used in the final sentence of the passage?
A) appreciation by a writer of the value of critical reflection
B) awareness by a writer that one’s perspectives may change
C) perception of the differences between an author’s values and those of others
D)acceptance by a writer of his or her own identity as a writer
E) understanding rather than judgment of existing conditions

The arrival in a new location of a non- original plant or animal species may be either intentional or unintentional. Rates of species movement driven by human transformations of natural environments as well as by human mobility-through commerce, tourism, and travel- dwarf natural rates by comparison. While geographic distributions of species naturally expand or contract over historical time intervals (tens to hundreds of years), species’ ranges rarely expand thousands of miles or across physical barriers such as oceans or mountains. A number of factors confound quantitative evaluation of the relative importance of various entry pathways. Time lags often occur between establishment of non-indigenous species and their detection, and tracing the pathway for a long-established species is difficult. Experts estimate that non-indigenous weeds are usually detected only after having been in the country for thirty years or having spread to at least ten thousand acres. In addition, federal port inspection, although a major source of information on non-indigenous species pathways, especially for agricultural pests, provides data only when such species enter via scrutinized routes. Finally, some comparisons between pathways defy quantitative analysis. For example, which is more “important”: the entry pathway of one very harmful species or one by which many but less harmful species enter the country?

16. Which of the following statements about species movement is
best supported by the information in the passage?
A) Species movement is affected more by habitat modifications than by human mobility.
B) Human-driven factors affect the rate at which species move more than they affect the long-term amount of such movements.
C) Natural expansions in the geographic distribution of species account for less Species movement than do natural contractions.
D) Natural environments created by commerce, tourism, and travel
contribute significantly to species movement.
E) Movement of a species within a continent depends largely upon the
geographic extent of human mobility within the continent.

17. Which of the following best expresses the author’s primary concern in the second paragraph?
A) to describe the events usually leading to the detection of a non-indigenous species
B) to identify the problems in assessing the relative significance of various entry path-ways for non- indigenous species
C) to discuss the role that time lags and geographic expansion of non-indigenous species play in species detection
D) to point out the inadequacy of the federal port inspection system in detecting the entry of non-indigenous species
E) to explain why it is difficult to trace the entry pathways for long-established non-indigenous species

18. Based upon the information in the passage, whether the entry pathway for a particular non-indigenous species can be determined is least likely to depend upon which of the following?
A) whether the species is considered to be a pest
B) whether the species gains entry through a scrutinized route
C) the rate at which the species expands geographically
D) how long the species has been established
E) the size of the average member of the species
Those who criticize the United Kingdom government today for not providing health care to all citizens equate health care provision with medical insurance coverage. By this standard, seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Australia lacked any significant conception of public health law. However, despite the general paucity of bureaucratic organization in pre-industrial Australia, the vast extent of health regulation and provision stands out as remarkable. Of course the public role in the protection and regulation of eighteenth-century health was carried out in ways quite different from those today. Organizations responsible for health regulation were less stable than modern bureaucracies, tending to appear in crises and wither away in periods of calm. The focus was on epidemics which were seen as unnatural and warranting a response, not to the many endemic and chronic conditions which were accepted as part and parcel of daily life. Additionally, religious influence was significant, especially in the seventeenth century. Finally, in an era which lacked sharp demarcations between private and governmental bodies, many public responsibilities were carried out by what we would now consider private associations. Nevertheless, the extent of public health regulation long before the dawn of the welfare state is remarkable and suggests that the founding generation’s assumptions about the relationship between government and health were more complex than is commonly assumed.

19. Among the following statements about the United Kingdom government’s role in the provision of health care, which finds the least support in the passage?
A) The government today addresses health concerns that formerly were not considered serious enough to warrant government .involvement.
B) What were once public health-care functions are now served by the private sector.
C) Philosophical considerations play a less significant role today in the formulation of public health-care policies than in previous centuries.
D) Public health care today is guided largely by secular rather than religious values.
E) Modern public health-care agencies are typically established not as temporary measures but rather as permanent establishments.

20. Which of the following best expresses the author’s point of contention with “those who criticize the United Kingdom government for not providing health care to all citizens”
A) Their standard for measuring such provision is too narrow.
B) They underestimate the role that insurance plays in the provision of health care today.
C) They fail to recognize that government plays a more significant role today in health care than in previous eras.
D) They misunderstand the intent of the founding generation with respect to the proper role of the government in the area of health care.
E) They lack any significant conception of public health law.

21. Which of the following best expresses the main point of the passage?
A) The government’s role in health care has not expanded over time to the extent that many critics have asserted.
B) The government should limit its involvement in health care to epidemiological problems.
C) Health problems plaguing pre-industrial Australia resulted largely from Inadequate public health care.
D) History suggests that the United Kingdom government has properly
played a Significant role in provision of health care.
E) Private insurance is an inadequate solution to the problem of health care.

One of the strange natural phenomena that disappeared as the size of Australian forests decreased was the occasional mass emigration of the grey squirrel. Caused by an excessive build-up of their populations, these movements involved millions of the animals-a half-billion were estimated to have migrated across southern Wisconsin, in 1843. Moving in hordes, they devoured crops and even managed to struggle across such mighty rivers as the Ohio thousands drowning in the effort. Currently, the squirrel population, although smaller, is on the increase; emigrations still occur but they are not often noticeable.

22.Gray squirrels usually emigrate because of
A) major weather changes
B) an increase in the number of squirrels
C) humans building houses in nesting areas
D) danger from hunters
E) extinction threat

23. Why do grey squirrels emigrate less frequently now than they used to?
A) Most of them have already moved south.
B) Most of them are impeded by the current of the Ohio river.
C) There are now fewer natural enemies in the squirrels’ habitats.
D) There is now less forest land in which squirrels are concentrated.
E) Due to the climatic changes

24. According to the passage, the squirrel emigrations have caused problems for people because of
A) damage to homes
B) loss of farm produce
C) disruption of river traffic
D) harm to children
E) climatic alteration

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