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TEST – 22

The increasingly sophisticated understanding of counterinsurgency led to an significant discovery that could be applied with success to other forms of conflict. The political dominance of internal wars is also to be found in some international conflicts. The evidence for this is empirical, no satisfactory general theory has yet been formulated. It is difficult to put a date on this insight, but some of the examples of recent history are illustrative. The U.S bombing of Libya on. 14 April 1986 is one. That mission was conducted for political and psychological purposes. It was not a simple military operation, but delivered a loud message that state-sponsored terrorism would not go unpunished. Military targets were hit, but their destruction was not the driving purpose. Rules of engagement were strict; there were to be no attacks on targets of opportunity. Despite precautions, unintentional damage to other than selected targets occurred.

1. The discovery attained after the increasingly better understanding of counterinsurgency is…………………
a) that the driving force behind both internal and some international conflicts is political.
b) that though national conflicts are politically motivated, international ones involve military objectives.
c) that people understand increasingly better that insurgency is directed towards the disestablishment of the governing bodies of countries.
d) also applicable with success to internal wars.
e) that insurgencies are sometimes against other nations rather than the ruling power.

2. According to the paragraph……..
a) Libya’s bombardment by the U.S. aircraft is a perfect example only for the psychological purposes of international conflicts.
b) some examples of recent history provide proof for the discovery that some international conflicts are also politically motivated.
c) rather than targets of opportunity, military targets were destroyed for economic ends.
d) in spite of the measures taken to destroy targets as well as the predetermined ones, some unintentional damage can not be said to have been caused.
e) the mission of bombing Libya was carried out as a response to Libya’s enmity toward to the U.S.A.

3. The message intended to deliver by the bombardment was……………….
a) that any insurgency against the Libyan state would not be allowed.
b) so effective that states backing up terrorists financially stopped doing this.
c) that the U.S. would no more tolerate any state-supported terrorism, particularly if it harms its interests.
d) to put an end to international terrorist activities conducted by religious factions.
e) that any target in a country supporting terrorism would be attacked for punishment.

Philosophy teaches us to feel uncertain about the things which seem to us self-evident. Propaganda, on the other hand, teaches us to accept as self- evident matters about which it would be reasonable to suspend our judgement or to feel doubt. The propagandist must therefore be consistently dogmatic. All his statements are made without qualification. There are no greys in his picture of the world; everything is either diabolically black or celestially white. He must never admit that he may be wrong or that people with a different point of view might be even partially right. Opponents ought to be argued with; they should be attacked, shouted down, or if they become too much of a nuisance, liquidated.

4.The distinction between philosophy and propaganda is
a) self-evident matters are readily refused by the propagandist but not by the philosopher.
b) philosophy stimulates people to give any matter a-second thought prior to accepting it as true, whereas propaganda teaches us to accept even plausible matters.
c) while philosophy teaches us to doubtfully judge even matters seeming to be obviously true, propaganda tries to get us to accept even unreasonable things as true.
d) we must suspend our judgement of the propagandist’s ideas while the philosopher’s are readily acceptable.
e) the truth of philosophy is unquestionable but the other is dubious.

5. It can be inferred from the statements of the propagandist that ……..
a) a good propagandist does not turn a deaf ear to other people’s ideas.
b) everything is either good or bad and there is no middle way between the bad and the good.
c) the propagandist is not uncompromising at all times; there are times when he agrees with arguments against his.
d) no controversial thought that might be expressed by others is disregarded by him.
e)he does not demand complete acceptance of his ideas.

6.According to the propagandist, when a rival becomes intolerable,
a) he can be argued with over controversial points.
b) he is tolerable as long as he does not attack.
c) nothing is done because this is a must for democratic arguments.
d) he ought to be done away with.
e) he ought to be outtalked as any dissident idea gains root among the listeners.

As for the nervous system, it is one of the most complicated and significant systems in human body. The controlling units of the system are located in the brain, out of which messages are sent that activate the other systems. Like a computer internet system, every inch of the body is connected to the brain with nerves. They direct muscular movements of the body. They tell the body parts when and how to move. They also direct cognitive processes like learning and not forgetting a language. Without the central nervous system it would be impossible to see, hear and feel something. For instance, as written of earlier in the previous paragraph, especially muscular system would not work properly. How conduction of messages carried out along these natural wires is illustrated below.

7. The passage which this paragraph is taken from is about…………………
a) the muscular system
b) the respiratory system
c) the nervous system
d) neurological findings
e) systems in the body

8. The paragraph that follows this one is possibly about
a) the nerves which direct the respiratory system.
b) the way messages which control muscular movements are carried
c) how the nervous system works
d) there is no paragraph after it
e) movements of neurones in the brain

9. It is revealed in the passage that…………………
a) efficient function of the muscular system depends on the effectiveness of the nervous system.
b) each system in the body has its own controlling nervous systems.
c) not only muscular movements but also cognitive processes could possibly function effectively without nerves.
d) the nervous system cannot be said to be responsible for language learning.
e) the most significant part of the system is in the stomach.

Atoms are invisibly small parts of elements. The atom itself is composed of three smaller parts; positive charges and neutral particles in the centre, and after a considerable amount of space there are rings carrying the other part, negative charges. The weight of the atom is calculated by adding the neutral particles and the positive charges. The negative and positive charges are the same in number. Having an amazingly powerful force, the neutral particle in the centre is the most important part. That is the nuclear energy we all know. When a neutral particle, for instance, from a uranium atom is disconnected from the centre, the atom loses its stability and becomes radioactive. This outgoing particle hits one atom after another, causing a consecutive reaction that produces nuclear energy.

10. If the negative Charges and the positive ones are added,
a) the total number of all the charges in an atom can be found.
b) the weight of the atom may be calculated
c) nuclear energy is produced.
d) another element comes into being
e) the atom becomes unstable.

11. If a neutral particle flies out of the centre of an atom,……………-
a) the empty space becomes full.
b) the weight of the atom skyrockets.
c) rings holding the negative charges are broken
d) the atom loses its balance.
e) radioactive materials are exhausted.

12. According to the passage it wouldn’t be right to say that
a) it is impossible to see atoms though they exist.
b) the negative charges and the positive ones attract one another and this create a balance
c) the balance is lost when the atom is pressed.
d) if the number of the negative and the positive charges is 50 in an atom, the number of the negative ones is 25
e) nuclear energy is generated by consecutive atomic reactions.

One day Josper Fant caught Bolivar skinning a rattlesnake. He assumed that Bolivar was merely going to make himself a rattlesnake belt, however, he happened to turn around as Bolivar sliced the snake right into the stew-pot, a sight which agitated him greatly. He had heard that people ate snakes, but had never expected to do so himself. When he told the other hands what he had seen, they were so aroused that they wanted to hang Bolivar on the spot, or at least rope him and drag him through the prickly pear to improve his manners. But when they approached Augustus with the information about the snake, he just laughed at them and attempted to give them a lecture on the culinary properties of rattlesnake.

13. Josper Fant became worried…………………
a) having witnessed that Bolivar was preparing to grill the rattlesnake he had skinned
b) as Bolivar was removing the skin of a rattlesnake to make a belt
c) when he heard that the others would punish Bolivar for eating a forbidden food
d) as he had never eaten snake, nor had he seen anybody doing that
e) when the others came to have a look at the sliced animal

14. It is inferred from the passage that…………….
a) Bolivar ought to have been punished by being dragged though the prickly orchard or by being whipped with a rope
b) Josper Fant and the other fellows were knowledgeable about other edible snakes
c) if it hadn’t been for Augustus, Josper’s friends would have deprived Bolivar of the pleasure of eating the snake
d) Josper had never heard people ate snake
e) Bolivar and Augustus had tasted rattlesnake several times before that incident

15. According to the passage, …………….
a) Agustus was a wise person who they referred to for any dispute in deadlock
b) Josper and his friends planned to punish Bolivar badly so that he ought to change his misconducts
c) What agitated Josper was Bolivar’s slicing of the snake instead of putting the whole reptile over the fire uncut
d) Boivar’s friends made up their minds against taking punitive action against him on the spot.
e) culinary properties of rattlesnakes were known to everybody but those people there

Deep in the centre of the human brain are a number of specific structures, such as the hypothalamus and limbic system, which make up the “emotional brain.” These brain structures play important roles in regulating a number of physical and emotional functions, including appetite, sleep cycles, and sexual drive. They include pleasure centres and
pain centres, operating to control feelings and emotional expression. When your emotional brain is functioning normally, you are able to get a good night’s sleep, feel rested, have normal sexual interest and appetite, and not feel overwhelmed by intense feelings. In other words you feel normal. However, in biological depressions, such brain areas begin to malfunction and can produce a number of significant symptoms.

16. It can be concluded from the passage that………………..
a) certain types of depression result from the malfunction of the emotional brain
b) Insomnia has nothing to do with the limbic system but stems from an over activity in the hypothalamus
c) when you have intense feelings, the emotional brain is extremely impaired
d) The hypothalamus and limbic system simply operate to ease any emotional pain
e) if someone has no sexual interest and appetite, he must have been depressed

17. The emotional brain…………
a) consists of all the brain structures in the deepest centre of the brain
b) from time to time deregulates some emotional functions to depress one
c) keeps a person psychologically and physically at ease
d) enhances sexual interest as long as one’s sleep cycles are normal
e) should be removed when someone is experiencing overwhelming feelings

18. Sleeplessness may occur …………………
a) on account of postponed inter-neural conduction time
b) to motivate the limbic system to regulate the sleep cycles of an individual
c) if the individual has overcome a severe depression totally
d) so that one’s appetite and sexual interest are enhanced
e) as a result of the emotional brain operating improperly

Most debates about whether or not men are stronger than women are meaningless because the disputants fail to consider that the word “stronger” may mean many things. Most men can surpass most women in lifting heavy weights, in striking an object (say a baseball or an opponent’s jaw), in running, jumping, or doing heavy physical labour. But the statistics indicate that most women live longer than most men, that they have better chance of resisting disease, that they can beat men at operations requiring finger dexterity and the ability to work accurately under monotonous conditions. On this kind of proof it would be legitimate to argue that women are stronger than men. The truth is that each sex can surpass the other in certain kinds of activities. To say that one is stronger than the other is to indulge in an argument that would arise if the word “stronger” were more sharply defined.

19. It will prove inconclusive to argue about if women are weaker than men…………………….
a) when we consider the outstanding power of the male in doing heavy physical work
b) unless we discuss it within the limits of a certain domain
c) since there are a great many women who play chess better than their male opponents
d) women are ambidextrous, which enables them to surpass men in all fields
e) as it is meaningless to discuss anything when it comes to monotonous circumstances

20. It would be justifiable to argue that women are stronger than men only……………-
a) because they use their hands more skilfully though men outlive them
b) as the word “stronger” hasn’t been clearly defined yet
c) if women weren’t vulnerable to illnesses
d) when we consider women’s performance in working properly under boringly f routine conditions
e) if they were brought up in the same circumstances

21. It is stressed in the passage that……………..
a) it stems from women’s stamina that they are outlived by men
b) most discussants forget that the female lag behind the male in living a healthy life
c) unless what we mean by “stronger” is clarified, there is no point in disputing over which sex is more powerful
d) men are stronger than women only in a few kinds of activities
e) whether men could live longer than women we could say they are the strongest in all fields of activity

Is it possible to mould the unborn child’s character by the conduct of the mother during pregnancy? What we know of prenatal development makes all this seem utterly impossible. How could such extremely complex influences pass from the mother to the child? There is no connection between their nervous systems. Even the blood vessels of mother and child
do not join directly. They lie side by side and the chemicals are interchanged through the walls by a process that we call osmosis. An emotional shock to the mother will influence her child, because it alters the activity of her glands and so the chemistry of her blood. Any chemical change in the mother’s blood will affect the child -for better or worse. However, we cannot see how a liking for mathematics or poetic genius can be dissolved in the blood and produce a similar liking or genius in the child.

22. It is expressed in the passage that…………………….
a) the activity of the baby’s glands may give us insights into how we could imprint certain characteristics in the baby’s brain
b) if the blood vessels of the child and mother were directly interconnected, any trait dissolved in the blood would pass to the child
c) an emotional suffering of the mother influences the baby so much that it will possibly be born to be psychologically ill
d) if it weren’t for osmosis, the nervous systems of the baby wouldn’t be much influenced by any swinging in its mother’s mood
e) Prenatal modification of a baby’s personality through the conduct of the pregnant mother seems most improbable

23. Even though the blood vessels of mother and child are indirectly connected,
a) their nervous systems conduct messages to one another
b) osmosis enables mother’s personal traits to pass to the baby
c) some psychological conditions of mother pass to the child through chemical interchanges
d) the chemistry of both mother and child’s blood is always the same owing to the regulatory glands
e) whenever the mother is diseased, so is the child

24. According to the passage the present birth technology
a) hasn’t still managed to implant desirable traits in a baby in the womb
b) fails to predict the sex of one’s baby pre-natally
c) is advanced enough to develop a baby in vitro
d) doesn’t suffice to operate on a pregnant woman
e) can imprint poetic genius in an unborn child

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