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TEST – 23

In discussing the relative difficulties which the exact and inexact sciences face, let me begin with an analogy. Would you agree that swimmers are less skilful athletes than runners because swimmers do not move as fast as runners? You possibly would not. You would quickly point out that water offers greater resistance to swimmers than the air and ground do to runners! Agreed, that is just the point. In seeking to solve their problems, the social scientists encounter greater resistance than the physical scientists. The circumstances under which the social scientists must work would drive physical scientist frantic. Here are five of these conditions. He can make few experiments; he cannot measure the results exactly; he cannot control the conditions surrounding the experiments; he is often expected to get quick results with slow-acting economic forces; and he must work with people, not with inanimate objects.

1. An inexact science is one
a) involving various experiments with chemical substances
b) that all physical scientists are involved in
c) that offers great resistance to scientists since they conduct many experiments |
d) which can be considered as a newly born science
e) that doesn’t enable the scientist to make accurate observations and measurements

2. The author makes a comparison……………..
a) to illustrate why exact sciences can’t make many experiments
b) between a runner and a scientist dealing with an inexact science
c) between a social scientist and a swimmer, comparing a physical scientist to a runner
d) to imply that physical scientists ought to experiment with people to see how burdensome it is
e) in order to draw the reader’s attention to some scientific areas

3. ………..is not among the difficulties which a social scientist encounter.
a) finding appropriate lifeless objects
b) inaccurate measurement
c) conducting fewer experiments
d) controlling the circumstances of the experiment
e) lacking financial resources

The shocking death of Pamela Basu spurred a series of official actions to cope with carjacking. Within days of her murder, the D.C. City Council passed a law mandating 15-year prison sentences for armed carjackers. Last month the President signed a law that makes carjacking a federal crime carrying a life sentence if it leads to someone’s death. Motorists are scrambling for their own protection. At Auto stores in Detroit, customers can buy a device which silently signals a monitoring station if a car is moved while the alarm system is on. Others want security systems equipped with a “panic button” that activates a siren and flashing lights from inside a car. There is also increased interest in bullet-resistant glass. Jittery motorists hope these measures will buy them some safety till law enforcement can put the brakes on a singularly frightening crime.

4. In accordance with the newly passed law, any thief that uses a gun. in stealing a car will……………….
a) get the gallows.
b) be hanged.
c) be sentenced to 15 years in jail.
d) spend his whole life in prison.
e) be tried in the federal court.

5. The new law signed by the President…………………….
a) includes life sentences for unarmed thefts.
b) includes life imprisonment for carjacking causing deaths.
c) has caused carjackers to take measures not to be easily caught.
d) increased the sale of ear-protection equipment.
e) is improbable to curb carjacking in suburbs.

6. It is inferred from the passage that……………….
a) before Pamela’s death the punishment for carjacking was the same all over the U.S.A
b) the president was forced by the public not to rarity the resolution to change the criminal act
c) Pamela was killed in the latest of the, carjacking attempts that have occurred recently
d) it was such a new deterrent law that car protection equipment was no longer selling well
e) if a crime is a federal one, its punishment is applicable only in one of the states of America

While the 1970s had demonstrated the importance of the Gulf region, the 1980s provided evidence of its fragility. In September 1980 Iraq launched an offensive into Iran that turned into a bloody eight-year of attrition. The war left hundreds of thousands dead, disrupted vital oil tanker traffic in the Gulf, and led to U.S. intervention in the form of naval escorts for Kuwaiti oil tankers. Meanwhile the economies of the Gulf states, all of which depend to some degree on oil, were devastated by the crash of oil prices in the mid-1980s. Plummeting oil revenues forced the Gulf states to cut back severely on domestic development projects and services.

7. Owing to the sudden steep reduction in the income from oil in the mid-1980s,
a) the gulf states developed economically.
b) Kuwaiti oil tankers were escorted by the U.S. ones for protection.
c) oil prices were also on the decrease.
d) the economies of the Gulf states retrogressed seriously.
e) the need for oil rigs became urgent again.

8. Any destabilisation of the Gulf region brings about global problems as
a) before Pamela’s death the punishment for carjacking was the same all over the U.S.A.
a) the bloodiest wars which involved many nations have occurred here.
b) it is accountable for the significant part of the world’s need for oil.
c) such wars are disruptive of oil tanker traffic between the gulf states.
d) Iraq and Iran have historical enmity toward each other.
e) in such a case oil companies would become very rich since it leads to higher oil prices.

9. In the mid-1980s……………….
a) Iraq waged a war against Iran.
b) the U.S. interfered in the Iran-Iraq war with its aircraft.
c) the amount of income the Gulf states gained from oil decreased sharply.
d) the war between Iran and Iraq was going on outside the gulf region.
e) all economic projects and services to be carried out in the Gutt” were stopped.

If science has become remote from everyday experience, it has also broken from conventional notions of discovery. In virtually every cutting-edge field, from astrophysics to molecular genetics, the object of discovery is frequently totally inaccessible to the senses, and the process of discovery has become inferential rather than direct. When Wolszczan “discovered” the first planets outside our own solar system, he did not spy them through a telescope: he inferred their presence by the pattern of radio beeps coming from the pulsar they orbit. When chemists “discovered” a substance in broccoli that may prevent cancer, they did not peer at the stalks through a microscope: they looked for the chemical’s footprints in the wavy printout of a chromatograph. In palaeontology one can still stub a toe and, by God, definitely and directly discover a fossil. But in other fields, “no one looks at the thing itself anymore,” says physicist Nick Samios, director of Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York. “We look at what the thing does, at the traces it leaves behind.”

10. What was conventionally understood from the conception of discovery was
a) the unavailability of the thing discovered.
b) to sense directly the thing discovered.
c) that the discovered thing was sensed only by instruments.
d) that discoveries were inferential rather than direct.
e) the presence of the thing discovered was inferred from the traces it left.

11. Which of the discoveries below is directly accessible to the senses?
a) The discovery of a new star through a detector.
b) The indirect discovery of a substance in another one.
c) The inferential discovery of an asteroid.
d) the visual, spotting of a new plant in a jungle.
e) The discovery of a new heart tumour using a cardiograph.

12. It isn’t right to say that……………….
a) Palaeontology is a science that deals with fossils.
b) telescope is an instrument used for observing objects in the outer space.
c) microscope; is an instrument used for observing small things inaccessible to the naked eye.
d) the process of discovery was inferential in old ages, but there are advanced instruments now.
e) nowadays discovery is achieved by looking at the traces the object leaves behind rather than looking at it itself.

Finns are the best readers in the industrialised world. The world’s highest percentage of engineering is in the former Czechoslovakia. The Swiss are tops at math and science. Canada has turned out the highest proportion of university graduates. The Japanese spend proportionately less on education than everybody else. And after a decade of school reform, the United States compares more favourably -though still not impressively – with the rest of the industrialised world than it has in the past, according to a study released last week by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The research, based on figures obtained in 1991 offers the most comprehensive comparison ever made among the educational systems of the world’s wealthiest countries.

13. The passage is about……………….
a) the educational systems in underdeveloped countries.
b) the educational systems in developing countries.
c) where the industrialised nations stand in terms of educational performance.
d) the educational systems in industrialised countries.
e) the proportion of successful pupils in the USA.

14. According to the paragraph,…………………….
a) after ten years of school reform, the US has succeeded in surpassing the developed countries to a great degree.
b) in spite of a decade of school reform, the US has not yet outranked the other industrialised nations satisfactorily in educational success.
c) the Swiss are unsuccessful in math and science.
d) the biggest proportion of engineering graduates in the world are in the new Czechoslovakia.
e) the US was better in educational performance in the last than it is now

15. The research released by the OECD…………………….
a) was conducted to know whether the US students have outperformed their counterparts in other countries in education.
b) shows that the wealthiest country turns out the poorest figures.
c) indicates that the Japanese comparatively have greater investment in education.
d) was carried out to compare the educational systems and achievement rates the world’s richest nations.
e) is indicative of the fact that the US is very willing to know about the educational systems in other countries.

No place is absolutely safe for travellers; tourists have recently been taken hostage in Turkey, wounded in cafe bombings in Egypt and shot down in the streets of Manila. But it wasn’t easy to escape the conclusion that the prevalence of guns in American hands has given deadly force to festering social frustrations. The Washington based Travel Industry Association of America, the leading tourism trade group, joined Disney in calling for gun control last week. But there was no such call from Florida. The toughest
proposal now circulating would ban hand guns for those under 18 unless they are used for hunting, gun classes or target shooting. Whether that would have any impact is arguable In a city like Miami locked in its own urban arms race.

16. What has caused the American society to feel annoyingly irritated is –
a) the ever increasing number of guns carried by Americans.
b) the violence caused by tourism agencies.
c)the establishment of a deadly force against tourist molesters.
d) the suggestion to prohibit carrying guns.
e) the disunity of travel agencies over preventing tourists from carrying guns.

17. It is suggested that……………….
a) no one apart from security forces should carry guns.
b) possession of all kinds of guns be banned in tourist attractions.
c) possession of guns be banned for those under 18 except that they are not to be used for hunting, gun classes or target shooting.
d) no strict rule to ban should be introduced
e) all tourism agencies should invite to overcome threats against tourists.

18. It is doubtful……………….
a) that those bombing cafes in Egypt did so to on purpose harm tourists.
b) whether Florida will join other states in the US in calling for gun control.
c) whether the proposal to take arms possession under strict control will have any
favourable influence in Miami.
d) whether the prevalence of guns in the US will heighten the number of casualties in tourist attacks in the future.
e) whether arms sales can be controlled in the near future.

In their private councils, Beijing policy-makers are engaged in a vigorous dispute on how to fight inflation. One thing is clear to all sides: China needs better tools for fighting inflation. New national taxes introduced this year are supposed to provide the central government with more revenue so it has to print less new money – however its success at tax collecting in the unruly provinces has been spotty. Beijing also wants to create a strong central bank to regulate the money supply and credit creation. But such a bank will have trouble deploying its main anti-inflationary weapon – higher interest rates – as long as state enterprises would be the first to suffer. The disorganized state enterprises will not be phased out for years, until a social security system is devised to give workers a new safety net and until the private sector creates enough jobs to absorb unneeded state employees.

19. Beijing policy-makers engaged in discussing how to curb the inflation all agree that……………
a) new national taxes ought to be introduced regardless of how to collect them.
b) a new central bank should be set up to increase the money in circulation.
c) the private sector recruits workers more than necessary, causing unnecessary pays.
d) all unnecessary state employees should be dismissed from their present jobs.
e) more well-organized strategies are required for China to stop the inflationary rise.

20. New taxes levied lately……………….
a) are estimated to provide more earnings for the central government although it is not so successful at collecting taxes in uncontrollable provinces.
b) should provide the central government with more earnings although it has to print less money.
c) are expected to provide more income for the local governments, but tax-collecting is not possible in some regions.
d) caused some people to revolt against the central government.
e) have decreased the number of state employees.

21. Another thing that Beijing wants to do is
a) to use a sophisticated weapon to curb the inflation.
b) to set up a strong central bank to control the money supply and credit creation.
c) to introduce higher interest rates.
d) to decrease the number of workers employed by private sectors.
e) to send away more workers this year than previous years.

The media have come to be seen as a destructive force in American life, vastly more interested in tearing things down than in providing the information people really need to know. Americans populate two overlapping realities, the one they live every day and the one they experience vicariously in what they are shown or told. It is the media, directly or indirectly, that shape opinion about how America is doing as
society, and the picture they present is not a pretty one. Local newscasts pile up the bodies at a rate of a murder a minute, tabloid TV feeds on the sins of the rich and famous. Call-in radio has become a festival of complaint. Attack politics assures voters that all seekers and holders of public office are corrupt. Commercials tantalise consumers with the unattainable. “The press likes to think of itself as representing the public voice when it does not at all,” Yankelovich says. “It represents the voice of the press, with its own language, its own culture, its own interests.”

22. The media is criticised in the paragraph
a) for covering up news about murders.
b) that it does not represent the political beliefs of politicians.
c) for its vicarious picture of what is happening in the U.S.
d) for improperly shaping view about how the American society is getting on
e) for directly and correctly providing the information people really need to know

23. It is inferred from the paragraph that……………….
a) the American media have come to a financial deadlock.
b) the media is the only way to know the realities.
c) what is shown on TV is irrelevant to the sins of the rich and well-known.
d) the press always represents the public opinion.
e) society is suffering deeply from often occurring murders.

24. Yankelovich is of the opinion that……………….
a) there are times when the press represent the public opinion.
b) the press alleges to represent the public voice even when it does not.
c) those who own the press have their own culture different from the Americans.
d) even if the press is not right at some points, people believe it wholeheartedly.
e) as the public is unresponsive to the press misrepresentation of the public needs.

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