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OKUMA TEST 25

TEST – 25

The submarine crew for the mission had been carefully chosen. Research studies showed that staying in confining cells for an extended period of time was a severe hazard to human emotions. Claustrophobia, boredom and tensions which arise from working with other men in small areas, for months at a time, were constant problems. Learning from the observations of prison psychologists. Soviet naval training instructors counselled every submariner in particular to avoid close personal relationships with other submariners. Instead, they were supposed to follow survival instincts and do what was known among convicts as serving ‘soft’ time – developing just superficial friendships so as to maintain control of their emotions at all times.

1.The major idea of the passage is……………
a) no matter how long you stay with the same group of people in an enclosed place, there won’t be any problems.
b) boredom is not a problem that may cause conflict among people who stay in a closed area for a long time.
c) the reason why the crew was carefully selected was not that any group of carelessly chosen men would cause a problem.
d) building intimate personal relationships with people that you stay with in an enclosed area for a long time has serious damage to human emotions. –
e) it is inadvisable that any group chosen for a mission ought to develop only superficial relations.

2. It is stated in the passage that…………………
a) no scientific findings were used in the choice of the submariners for the mission.
b) according to the psychologists that the Russians turned to, all the crew chosen should establish close friendships with each other for unity.
c) the careful selection of the submariners for the special mission was done considering psychological findings about those living in small areas for a long time.
d) the mission was so significant that specialised powerful mart were selected regardless of their personalities.
e) equally dangerous was the preference of quickly annoyed men for the mission to be conducted on the island.

3. The Soviet naval instructors gave each crewman a careful counselling since …………………
a) each of them was expected to have incurable ailments during the mission.
b) no friendship was to be allowed in the submarine.
c) they were going to get involved in a hazardous mission.
d) they needed to know what equipment they would have to get with them.
e) they were supposed to refrain from emotional intimacy for the success of the
mission.

The United States is not only considered as a main world power, but also as a superpower in every respect, responsible for the liberty and security of most of the world. This responsibility is tied to a host of bilateral and multilateral treaties and defence connections which stretch all over the world. Millions of people and many nations look to the power and leadership of this country for their security. This military strength which so many have come to depend on consists of forces equipped with the most advanced weaponry systems available and manned by over four million men and women in the active and reserve forces. Great amounts of the sources of the country are committed to the military forces even though it is opposed by antiwar groups.

4. The author is of the opinion that…….
a) as a superpower the U.S. can not be challenged militarily by any other nation
b) all of the nations in the world are dependent upon the military assistance of the U.S. in case of their sovereignty being endangered.
c) the JJ.S. military is regarded as responsible for maintaining not only the freedom and security of the U.S. but also those of many other nations with which it has defence agreements.
d) what makes the U.S.A. a superpower is that its army is equipped with a very sophisticated weapons system.
e) simply by the allocation of most of the budget to the military is such a power able to remain deterrent.

5. All the following statements are true apart from that
a) regarded as a superpower in every respect the U.S., under some multilateral treaties, takes up the responsibility for ensuring the security and freedom of several nations.
b) military connections of the U.S expand everywhere in the world.
c) compared with those of other nations, the weapons systems of the U.S are the most sophisticated.
d) almost four million men and women soldiers can be mobilised in case of a war the U.S. might wage against any country.
e) groups in favour of peace are against so many national sources being allocated to the military.

6. Multilateral treaties are…………………
a) those between two sides
b) those regarding three sides
c) those regarding defence
d) those regarding more than two groups or nations
e) defence treaties between two tribal communities
Researches on the casualties which result from earthquakes indicate that the majority of deaths are caused by collapsing pillars, walls bridges or other constructions. Despite the existence of technology necessary to design quake-resistant buildings, there are no laws to force builders to use it. For instance some buildings must be constructed with special consideration. In such disasters fire stations, hospitals, and police stations are expected to remain undamaged even if many other buildings collapse not only because there are many people in them but also for the simple reason that anyone hurt in any building is to be helped by those working in them. In an earthquake in Erzurum in 1992 there would have been more survivors if those injured had not had to be carried a long distance for medical assistance. In another quake occurring in San Francisco in 1906 most of the damage was caused owing to the fires. Further examples can be given that point out the significance of earthquake preparedness.

7. The biggest problem which causes most deaths and casualties during earthquakes is –
a) most buildings are not endurable enough to survive even the weakest quakes
b) technological shortcomings to construct quake-resistant buildings
c) earthquakes occur naturally regardless of how buildings are built
d) the small number of hospitals and police stations
e) failure in safe transport of the injured

8. In spite of the existence of technology to design endurable buildings to survive quakes intact,……………….
a) bridges and other constructions easily collapse
b) hospitals and police stations are given priority
c) there is no legal force requiring builders to do so
d) the law forces builders to lessen their expenditure for materials
e) builders violate the concerned laws in order not to utilise this technology.

9. Hospital and police stations……………
a) are mentioned as examples to buildings to be constructed with highly technical specifications
b) must be built irrespective of whether or not people need them
c) generally remain unharmed irrespective of the strength of hurricanes
d) are places where builders responsible for the collapsed buildings are detained
e) carry the injured to long distances

Authentic people recognise the direction in which their lives are meant to go. When Alberto Dominic, the great missionary doctor, was a boy, a friend proposed that they go into the hills and kill birds. Alberto was reluctant, but afraid of being laughed at, he went along. They arrived at a tree in which a flock of birds was singing; the boys put stones in their catapults. Then the church bell began to ring, mingling music with the birdsong. For Alberto, it was a voice from heaven. He shooed the birds away and went home, disregarding what his friends thought about him. From that day on, reverence for life was more important to him than the fear of being laughed at. His priorities were clear.

10. Alberto accepted his friend’s suggestion of going into the hills,…………………
a) since he felt anxious to enjoy the scenery ,
b) though he was unwilling to do what he suggested doing
c) because he was an authentic person knowing where to go
d) because he couldn’t turn down his proposition
e) even though the boys poked fun at him

11. The music from the church bell, mingled with the birdsong,…………………
a) discouraged Alberto’s friends from shooting their catapults as it was a holy warning against killing birds
b) spooked some of the birds, finally causing them to fly away
c) shooed the whole flock of birds away
d) was as impressive as to inspire Alberto to prevent his friends from killing the birds
e) caused Alberto to wait there a little more to listen to this holy music

12. This story emphasizes…………………
a) people slaughtering animals won’t go to the heaven after death
b) those who eke out a living by hunting birds have no reverence for life indeed
c) an authentic person should do what they should regardless of what others may think or even if they ridicule them
d) one should disregard what their friends think while deciding on something
e) if your priorities are clear, do what you like, but be careful not to be ridiculed

Although writing a research paper is a difficult assignment, many students make it more difficult than it need be because of inefficient working habits. Very often they postpone work on the paper until it is too late to do a respectable job of it. Often they invite avoidable difficulty by failure to find out at the beginning of their study whether sufficient material .is available in the library. Instead of developing a general notion of the topic before tackling it in detail, they begin with the first convenient book and plunge into fine points before they see the topic as a whole. They take more notes than are necessary because they begin to take notes before they have decided what kind of information they need, and because they do not pick out the tactual information in a paragraph but quote the paragraph in its entirety.

13. Researchers’ untimely engagement in fine details of their topic…………………
a) blocks their proper view of the subject as a whole and leads to redundant notes
b) leads to their accidental discovery of relevant information
c) is indicative of how competent they are in writing
d) inhibit them from using relevant books efficiently
e) shows they don’t know to quote factual information

14. What renders writing a research paper more difficult is………………..
a) the nature of the writing activity itself
b) that many students overuse the library instead of making best use of their scanty information on the topic
c) students’ disorganised way of approaching their topic, and their inability to find relevant materials
d) the researcher’s inability to narrow his topic and to take irrelevant notes
e) that scholars refer to a-single comprehensive book from which they tend to write the whole essay

15. ………is among inefficient students’ working habits.
a) That some scholars don’t respect their work on compositions
b) Delaying work on the given writing assignment until too late a time
c) Conducting a library research to see if enough information is available
d) Finding convenient books to make conclusions and quotations
e) When students quote an entire paragraph instead of getting the relevant parts

While I jacked the fore end of the car up, and cleared away the snow from under it, Daniel built a fire about a foot in front of the radiator to keep the car and us from freezing to death and to furnish light for the operation. The wheel correction was surprisingly easy; we were ready to leave again in a few minutes. Then we discovered that it would be more difficult to get out of the lane than it had been to get in. Because of the density of the timber there was no way of turning around without serious risk of getting stuck, and the whirling snow made the visibility poor everywhere except directly within the beams of the head lights. Daniel therefore very carefully directed my backing; yet in spite of this I bumped several small pines which retaliated by dumping their burden of snow on top of the car. The Plymouth was little more than a snow drift on wheels by the time we reached the highway.

16. The author’s friend made a fire just in front of the car not only to prevent the car and them from freezing…………………
a) for the snow on the country lane to thaw away
b) so that they could see further ahead of their car for an easier drive
c) but also to impede the wheel correction work
d) and also to heat the radiator
e) but also to provide light for the fixing operation on the car

17. ………………., it proved harder to drive out of the lane than it had been to drive in.
a) Because it wasn’t snowing heavily when they drove in the lane
b) Because a lot of trees fell down during the snowy weather
c) Due to the dense woods and the field of vision obstructed by the snow
d) Owing to the bigger risk of getting stuck in the mud
e) As Daniel gave bad instructions while the writer was baking the car out of the lane

18. The snow-laden trees that the writer hit………………..
a) had left the auto in ruins by the time they reached the highway
b) were so small that they did not cause much damage to the Plymouth
c) show how inexperienced a driver the writer was
d) turned the car into a pile of moving snow
e) has indicated that the forest was impenetrably dense

It is assumed that each spot on the skin has a specialised sensory ending which produces sensations of cold, heat, pain, or touch. An examination of a bit of skin under a high-powered microscope indicates that the matter is not so simple. The deep layers of the skin contain a large number of sensory fibres of various dimension. Each fibre branches like a tree, and its branches interweave with the branches of many neighbouring fibres. At the end of each branch is a sensory receptor characteristic of that particular fibre. These receptors range in complexity from highly organised structures of considerable size to “bare”; undifferentiated fibrils with no more than a tiny knob at the tip. The intermingling of the fibre branches and the great number of different endings at any one skin spot suggest how difficult it would be to stimulate one ending or one fibre selectively. An ordinary stimulus, whether a pinprick, a light touch or pressure, invariably activates a large number of different sensory fibres. The evidence is inescapable that the sensations we describe as “touch” and “pain” must be derived from the concurrent activation of many different sensory fibres of various sizes and distribution.

19. An examination of a tiny spot of the skin with a microscope of strong magnifying power shows………………..
a) each spot on the skin has a differentiated sensory ending that produces feelings of cold, heat etc…
b) sensory activities are more complicated than can be explained as the stimulation of certain sensory endings
c) the branches of each fibre intermingle with each other and look like a knob at the end
d) clearly when dermatological experiments should be conducted on the problematic spots ,
e) there are not varied fibres but fibre branches separate from one another which produce sensations

20. It is almost impossible to stimulate a single fibre separately…………………
a) because fibre branches interweave with others from those nearby and many coexist at any given skin spot
b) due to the tiny size of fibres, particularly fibrils
c) because the end of each branch nearest to the epidermis consists of a numb knob
d) although the sensory characteristic of each fibre branch is known
e) if anything bigger than a needle is applied to the outer skin

21. It is understood from the passage that………………
a) when one feels pain, only the sensory receptor of a single fibre is stimulated and the body responds accordingly
b) if the weather is cold, all the unclothed skin stimulates all the fibres under it
c) though fibre branches with various sensory functions are intermingled and exist in big numbers, the sensory receptor at each one’s end differentiates sensations like heat or cold
d)a light torch or pressure may at times stimulate more fibrils than a cut
e)the recent assumptions concerning stimulation of the skin have been refuted by the researchers

The impact of alcohol on the nation’s health and welfare is almost incalculable. According to the latest figures, alcohol causes or is associated with 200,000 deaths every year. These include deaths from alcohol-related diseases (such as cirrhosis of the liver, cancers of the mouth and larynx, chronic brain injury), traumatic events (including automobile crashes), and thousands of other injuries. Many of these deaths and injuries occur among the young. Alcohol-impaired driving is the leading cause of death and injury among those under 25 years of age (in 1984 an average of 9 teenagers were killed and more than 400 injured each day in alcohol-related car crashes). Alcohol contributes to falls in the home, house fires, and drowning. People who drink habitually are more likely to smoke and hence to doze off and start fires with unextinguished cigarettes. Half of the pedestrians killed on the streets are under the influence. Nor are the highways and the home the only places where trouble occurs. Lost work time due to drinking on the job and/or recovering from hangovers costs an estimated $7.9 million annually.

22. The country is badly influenced by alcohol………………
a) as it has been proved alcohol causes many fatal diseases
b) if drunk-driving is tolerated more than now
c) because traumatic proceedings kill many people every year
d) so the government is right in their efforts to curb alcoholism
e) because of the heavy death toll resulting from the harmful effect of the substance on the individual and others

23. Drunk-driving is the most responsible for the huge number of deaths and injuries,
a) because traumatic events are as ordinary as terminal diseases
b) because alcoholic drivers are inclined to get irritated with drunk pedestrians and hit them to death
c) which explains why sleepers on the wheel cause more accidents than others
d) which usually occur among the young as they are more prone to drink and drive recklessly
e) as those who are involved in automobile crashes are decrepit people

24.Economic damage of alcoholism is enhanced…………………
a) when the drunkard sleeps with his cigarette not put out and goes to work drunk
b) if any crash they cause involves pedestrians besides car drivers
c) so much that 9 teenagers perish and over 300 hundred are injured every day
d) due to the expensive treatment of alcohol-related diseases
e) because the highways host most drunkards dismissed from their jobs

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