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OKUMA TEST 27

TEST – 27

Real depression cannot be as easily overcome as some people often suppose. It generally passes with time-but the time can seem endless. Activities giving companionship and a new interest can help. However for the sufferer to talk, again and again, about the causes of the depression helps most. People with depression need to be listened to and encouraged to find their own solutions, not made to feel yet more inadequate by good advice. They might need professional counselling as well as the support of family and friends.

1. According to the passage, in overcoming depression the support of friends and family ……….. .
a. can best be directed into giving good advice
b. is the only solution
c. may cause more harm than good
d. never contributes to any improvement in the patient
e. is not always sufficient

2. The author suggests that people with depression …………. .
a. should not be allowed much social activity
b. should rely solely on professional counselling
c. need, more than anything else, someone to listen to them
d. ought to remain alienated from society for a long time
e. receive an unnecessary amount of sympathy

3. It is understood from the passage some people ………….. .
a. seem to underestimate how difficult it is to get over depression
b. suffer from depression over long periods of time
c. refuse to get professional counselling
d. suffering from depression have been cured through the good advice of friends
e. with depression don’t want to talk about their problems

Several art museums and galleries and many individuals in the art world faced financial problems in 1975 as the effects of world recession deepened. On the surface things seemed to continue as before, with important exhibitions in major museums attracting large crowds. But smaller galleries, and the artists whose work was shown by their resourceful proprietors, fared less well, and over the long term it is the work of young artists that determines the course of art for the future.

4. According to the passage; the point made in the passage is that the recession in the 1970s …………. .
a. forced many young artists to give up their profession
b. led to the immediate closure of several major museums in the West
c. was one of the most serious in economic history
d. didn’t at first appear to hit hard at the art world
e. meant exhibitions were regarded as unnecessary luxuries

5. One can understand from the given passage that if a generation of young artist is lost ……….. .
a. this would not have a damaging effect on art museums and galleries even in the long run
b. the future development of art will be greatly hampered
c. recession in the art market would not last very long
d. smaller galleries would benefit from it
e. the organizing of exhibitions would be even more costly

6. The passage gives the idea that, the people in the art world who were most strongly affected by the recession ………….. .
a. were young artists and the owners of small galleries
b. tried to balance their losses by buying up the work of young artist
c. were the well established art dealers
d. decided to stop holding exhibitions altogether
e. resorted to all sorts of methods of attracting large crowds to their galleries

Computers should never have acquired the exalted status they now have. Fascinating and invaluable as they are, even the most advanced have less brain power than a three-year-old. But, they do, score on single-mindedness. The three-year-old uses his brain not only to think but also to do tasks like seeing, hearing and running about, which need incredibly rapid and sophisticated electromechanical interactions we too run on electricity. However the computer just sits there and sends spacecraft to the moon or re-organizes the world banking system-which is very much easier. That’s why man’s dream of robot servants is still a long way off.

7. The basic point made by the given passage is that the human brain ……… .
a. is much inferior to any known computer
b. is infinitely more complex and powerful than any computer
c. reaches its maximum efficiency at the age of three
d. is not as complicated and mysterious as has usually been thought
e. has been entirely reproduced in computer form

8. It is mentioned in the passage that the efficiency of the computer ………… .
a. will soon make it possible for man to be served by robots
b. depends on the speed with which the data are fed
c. can best be appreciated in the decision making positions
d. is the result of its being concentrated on one task at a time
e. depends upon sophisticated electromechanical interactions

9. The writer feels that computers ………….. .
a. are becoming unaffordable as they get more advanced
b. have contributed immensely to the improvement of living standards
c. have been unnecessarily overrated
d. will be a major force behind all future progress
e. are capable of doing all the tasks the human brain performs even more efficiently

The dramatic growth of the world’s population in the twentieth century has been on a scale without parallel in human history. Most of that growth has occurred since 1950 and is known as the population ”explosion”. Between 1950 and 1980 the world population increases from 2.5 to over 4 billion, and by the end of the century that figure will have risen to at least 6 billion. Growth of this size cannot continue indefinitely. Recent forecasts suggest that the total population will level-out at between 10 and 15 billion in the mid twenty-first century. Already there are encouraging signs that the rate of increase in several less developed countries is beginning to slow down.

10. According to the given passage above , at no period in human history has there been ……..
a. so much consensus among nations concerning the population of the world
b. a sharp decline in population like the one since 1980
c. a universal fear about the future of man
d. as comprehensive a study of population problems as the one envisaged now
e. a population explosion of the magnitude of the one in this century

11. It is emphasized in the passage that the increase in the world population …… .
a. is a highly encouraging sign for the general economy
b. is expected to continue even faster until 2050
c. will not continue into the next century
d. has been going on noticeably since 1950
e. has been much faster in the industrialized countries

12. The passage says that; it has been forecast that, by the middle of the next century ……… .
a. various measures will have been taken to encourage population growth
b. the population growth rate in less developed countries will be much higher than that in previous years
c. the world population will be stabilized at around 10 to 15 billion
d. the rate of increase will still be rising
e. the rate of population increase will have doubled the 1950 rate

Many substances, whether man-made or natural, can cause harm to man or the environment. Some of these reach the environment in waste streams; but emission limits and environmental quality standards can, in some instances, reduce the amounts released. However some other substances cannot be controlled in this way because they are released, not in industrial waste streams, however through the use or disposal of products which contain them. In many cases these substances pose little or no threat if the product containing them is used and disposed of properly. The right way to deal with them is generally through controls over their supply, use and disposal.

13. The passage gives the idea that, the threat of certain substances to the environment …………
a. is far less than that to man
b. could be reduced by enforcing emission limits and environmental controls
c. has been unnecessarily overemphasized
d. has to date been completely ignored
e. can be eliminated by the use of industrial waste streams

14. The writer emphasizes that the danger posed to man by many substances …… .
a. is unrelated to environmental pollution
b. is even greater than generally admitted
c. continues to grow despite constant control of disposal systems
d. is solely due to the use of industrial waste streams
e. arises from their misuse and wrong disposal

15. The passage above is related to the question of …………. .
a. how the harmful effects of certain substance can be brought under control
b. why industrial waste streams have caused so much pollution
c. whether man-made substances or natural ones cause more pollution
d. what measures are to be taken against the supply of dangerous substances
e. who is responsible for taking the required measures

No one knows when fiction began. Perhaps the first story-teller was a prehistoric mother trying to explain the world to her children. Or perhaps it was a hunter telling about his adventures around the camp fire. Who can tell? What we do know, though, is that story-telling was a purely oral activity until around 800 BC. Myths and tales were passed down by word of mouth and had to be memorized by each new generation of story-tellers. That oral tradition only changed when ancient people started to keep written records of certain stories. The earliest surviving examples of those are the epics of Homer, a blind professional story-teller, who lived in the eighth century BC.

16. It is pointed out in the passage that story-telling ………….
a. was first introduced by Homer in ancient times
b. possibly began in prehistoric times
c. began as a written activity in antiquity
d. became less and less popular during the 8th century BC
e. became far more popular with the invention of writing

17. The passage says that the Homeric epics ………….
a. were among the first stories to be written down
b. consisted mainly of myths and other tales
c. are the first examples of prehistoric tales and myths
d. were not the best of their kind in the 8th century BC
e. have often been imitated successfully in later centuries

18. The passage gives the idea that, throughout the oral tradition, professional story-telling ………….
a. were much respected in primitive societies
b. depended on Homer for their stories
c. were skilful at creating new stories
d. collected the first stories going back to prehistoric times
e. used to learn myths and tales by heart

The printing press was invented by Gutenberg in the city of Mainz, in Germany. He built and operated the printing press with movable metal letters. In fact, simple printing methods had existed for centuries, however they had to be done by hand and took a long time. What made Gutenberg’s press so different was that the individual letters themselves could rapidly and easily be moved to create different pages. That made it possible to print entire books more cheaply and more quickly than ever before.

19. It is emphasized in the passage that the basic new feature of Gutenberg’s printing press ………….
a. was that all the pages of a book were printed at the same time
b. was that it could easily be operated by unskilled workmen
c. was that the printing of books was less costly although it took a long time to do
d. was the use of metal letters that could be moved into different positions
e. made it possible to print books without any error at all

20. It is understood from the passage that actually, the history of printing ………….
a. first begins with Gutenberg’s invention
b. has always been associated with Germany
c. can be traced back well before the time of Gutenberg
d. runs parallel to the history of books
e. gives less importance to Gutenberg’s invention than it deserves

21. It is obvious from the passage that the printing techniques introduced by Gutenberg ………….
a. made printing more complicated and time-consuming
b. was not as important as it has often been thought
c. was not used outside Germany for a long time
d. speeded up the printing of books
e. adopted the metal letters system of easier printing methods

In several countries in the process of industrialization, overcrowded cities present a major problem. The overpopulation of towns is mainly caused by the drift of large numbers of people from the rural areas. The only long-term solution is to make life in the rural areas more attractive, which would encourage people to stay there. This could be achieved by providing incentives for people to go and work in the villages. Moreover, facilities in the rural areas, such as transportation, health and education services should be improved.

22. The passage says that , one significant outcome of industrialization has been ………….
a. a massive migration from the countryside to cities
b. a general improvement in the quality of urban life
c. the decline of health services in cities
d. the emergence of new cities throughout the country
e. an overall increase in the population of the country

23. The author emphasizes that one way in which rural life might be made from attractive ………….
a. has already been tried; namely improved education services
b. would be to set up better medical facilities
c. has been suggested by those migrating to the towns
d. has been regarded by some as a threat to the progress of industrialization
e. is likely to prove unpopular among city-dwellers

24. The writer suggests that, so as to solve the problem of overcrowding in cities, ………….
a. health and education services in the cities have to be modernized
b. transport facilities have to be renewed completely
c. measures should be taken to make the city environment more attractive
d. the number of those migrating to the cities should be restricted
e. living conditions in the countryside need to be made better and more agreeable.

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