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OKUMA TEST 28

TEST – 28

From the beginning of human history every society has had some way of preparing young people for adult life. Many communities have regarded education as training for work. In many traditional societies children still help the older members of the family in their work and so grow up to do the same jobs as their parents. Elsewhere young boys used to be sent away for several years as apprentices to a craftsman to learn his trade. In the modern world, however, the main aim of education is to stimulate the child’s mind and enable him to develop his personality and abilities to their limits.

1. The passage gives the idea that; in the past, education ………….
a. was offered only to adults
b. was generally understood as a means of learning a skill
c. was strictly confined to the family environment
d. was not taken seriously by parents
e. didn’t relate at all to e person’s working life

2. The writer emphasizes that, throughout history, in some way or another, ………….
a. boys have often managed to avoid work that requires a lot of physical effort
b. parents have been reluctant to improve the education of their children
c. children have been forced to learn several crafts
d. children have been given an education to equip them for the future
e. young people have chosen different ways of life from those of their parents

3. One can conclude from the given passage that modern education ………….
a. is a clear continuation of the practices of earlier times
b. is more interested in practical skills than in mental development of any kind
c. gives more importance to the development of a child’s mind and character than it used to
d. does not prepare young people for their future
e. puts too much pressure on a child

When Queen Victoria died in 1901, the world was entering a new and exciting period of change. For instance, in that year, for the first time, wireless signals had crossed the Atlantic and, in the following year, an airship flew from Europe to America. Already the motor car had come into use and was making life much easier. Telephones, also, were becoming fairly common. Politically and economically, people looked forward to a time of peace, wealth and progress. In fact, nothing seemed to stand in the way of such a future.

4. It is obvious from the passage that the twentieth century …………….
a. opened with a decline in industrial and economic activity
b. inherited, from the previous century, very many serious social and political problems
c. began in a spirit of hope and confidence which was more or less world-wide
d. was ushered in by a wave of despair and discontent
e. introduced a period of economic and political unrest.

5. At the beginning of the twentieth century, people …………….
a. were still not fully aware of the benefits of the telephone
b. believed that technological and economic progress could not be halted
c. preferred to make their long distance journeys by airship
d. were extremely upset bye the death of Queen Victoria
e. felt ill at ease in the face of so much change

6. From the passage one can conclude that at the turn of the new century …………….
a. the drawbacks of industrialization became evident
b. it seemed that nothing more could be invented
c. progress and change were to be seen on every side
d. technological progress was hampered by an economic crisis
e. the main emphasis was on improved communications

There can be few more depressing stories in the entire history of man’s exploitation of nature than the wide-spread destruction of whales. Whales have not only suffered untold cruelty but now face total extermination. Already entire populations have been wiped out, and the only reason why no species has yet been finished off is due to the vastness and inaccessibility of the oceans. Hence, a few have always managed to escape, but how much longer can this go on?

7. The author points out that of all the animals in nature it is probably the whales that …………….
a. have aroused most sympathy among ordinary people
b. have attracted the least scientific attention
c. alone can survive man’s hunting instincts
d. have suffered most from man’s cruelty
e. can finally avoid total extinction
<D

8. According to the passage, if whales have so far survived, it is because …………….
a. they have taken refuge in the vast expenses of the oceans
b. they breed fast and are difficult to catch
c. modern man has recognized the need to preserve them
d. various measures have been taken to save them from total extermination
e. man has finally realized that nature must not be exploited

9. In the passage the author expresses his doubts about whether …………….
a. many species of whales ought to be preserved
b. the exploitation of nature can be justified
c. whales can actually survive in the future
d. man really is as cruel to whales as some people have claimed
e. there is any point in trying to preserve all species of animals

It is to be expected that, by the year 2050, people’s eating habits will have changed beyond recognition. With a world-wide growth in population very many new mechanical and scientific methods will come into being to step up food production. There may well be an end to food as we know it today. In fact, meals as we know them, may become a thing of the past. Food constituents and vitamins may be taken in the form of capsules, tablets and pills. The thought of these highly artificial food constituents replacing present day foods may not be very relishing, but they may be the answer to food shortage and world famine.

10. It is suggested in the passage that, at a not too distant date, …. .
a. the world will face severe famine
b. the rate of growth in this world population will have been slowed down
c. the world’s food production will decline tremendously despite the population growth
d. methods of advertising food products will change drastically
e. our traditional eating habits will have been completely replaced

11. The author points out that artificial food …………….
a. will unfortunately be deficient in vitamins
b. can be economically and easily produced
c. is not practical but it is delicious
d. may provide a solution to the problem of a world food shortage
e. will appeal greatly to the majority of people

12. The main point emphasized in the passage is that …………….
a. present-day eating habits must be preserved
b. in the twenty-first century the wide-spread use of artificial food will be inevitable
c. famine and food shortage in the world can only be overcome by reducing the population growth rate
d. artificial goods need not conflict with traditional eating habits
e. mechanical and scientific methods are indispensable for the production of vitamins

There is nothing that man fears more than the touch of the unknown. He wants to know what is reaching towards him, and to be able to recognize or at least classify it. Man always tends to avoid physical contact with anything strange. In the dark, the fear of an unexpected touch can lead to panic. Even clothes give insufficient security: it is easy to tear them and pierce through to the naked, smooth, defenceless flesh of the victim. All the distances which men create round themselves are dictated by this fear. They shut themselves in houses which no one may enter, and only there they feel some measure of security. The fear of burglars is not only the fear of being robbed, but also the fear of something touching you in the darkness.

13. According to the passage, what frightens people most is …………….
a. the thought of being robbed at night
b. the unexpected contact with something unknown
c. a sense of insecurity
d. being alone in the dark
e. the knowledge that they won’t be protected

14. Because people are frightened of the unknown, …………….
a. they feel it necessary to put a barrier between themselves and the unknown
b. it is natural that they should always be in a state of panic
c. they feel safer in a crowd
d. they try to avoid physical contact of all kinds
e. burglars find it much easier to break into houses

15. This passage is concerned with …………….
a. how people can regain a sense of security
b. the measures people are advised to take against burglars
c. the three main types of fear
d. people’s fear of the unknown and how they try to cope with it
e. how to bring one’s fears into the open

England is famous for its gardens, and most people like gardening. This is possibly one reason why so many people prefer to live in houses rather than in flats. Particularly in suburban areas it is possible to pass row after row of ordinary small houses, each one with its neatly kept patch of grass surrounded by a great variety of flowers and shrubs. Enthusiasts of gardening get a great amount of helpful advice from the television and magazines.

16. The passage stresses that, as many English people are fond of gardening, ………….
a. they don’t want to live in suburban areas
b. houses are more popular than flats
c. they can spare little time for the television
d. the price of land is constantly going up
e. they grow flowers but not grass and fruit trees

17. The passage emphasizes that people interested in gardening ………….
a. find it essential to move out to distant rural areas
b. need large gardens in order to get satisfaction
c. are in a minority in England
d. get very little encouragement from the media
e. are supplied with information and guidance by both the television and the press
18. The passage is regarded with ………….
a. the increasing demand for new varieties of flowers and shrubs
b. the problems of gardening in suburban areas
c. the new techniques in gardening
d. the enthusiasm of people in England for gardens and gardening
e. how to look after the grass in gardens

Public libraries, maintained by the local authorities, are well developed and progressive, and everywhere permit people to borrow books without charge. The books in the lending section are always kept on open shelves, and library staffs are very helpful in getting books on request from other libraries through the exchange system. Most libraries report an increase in borrowing over the last few years, so television does not seem to be stopping people from reading, as it was feared that it would.

19. It is explained in the passage that any book that is not available in one library ………….
a. won’t be available at any library
b. can be brought from another
c. discourages people from using libraries
d. spoils the whole lending system of the public libraries
e. ought to be reported to the librarian

20. As stressed in the passage, people nowadays —-.
a. prefer entertaining television programs to reading
b. are using public libraries more than they used to in the past
c. read a lot but don’t use the libraries much
d. complain a great deal about the poor services the libraries are offering
e. are using the exchange system less and less often

21. The passage gives us the impression that public libraries ………….
a. charge more than is necessary for the services given
b. are no more receiving any financial support from local authorities
c. are working tremendously efficiently at present
d. do not cooperate with one another at all
e. are understaffed and poorly equipped

The Falklands are a group of small islands in the South Atlantic close to Argentina, with a population of 1,200 British citizens. They have been British territory ever since 1892. Disputes about who owns the islands go back to the eighteenth century. Argentina has long alleged that these islands, which they call the Malvinas, belong to them. They invaded the islands in April 1982 and the Falkland War lasted until July 1982 when British forces won them back. The Falkland War had an massive impact on Britain and is still controversial. Some people see it as a restoration of Britain’s old imperial power.

22. It is emphasized in the passage that both Britain and Argentina —.
a. were reluctant to start the Falklands War
b. regard the Falklands as their own territory
c. realize that these islands are of no importance to anyone
d. prefer to use the name ‘Malvinas’ for these islands
e. simply laid claim to the islands after 1892

23. According to the passage, the Falklands War ………….
a. was being fought, on and off, between 1892 and 1982
b. was largely ignored by the British public
c. demonstrated how right Argentina was in claiming the islands
d. was followed by a withdrawal of most British citizens from the islands
e. broke out after the islands were invaded by Argentina

24. One may infer from the passage that, even today, Britain’s hold over the Falkland Islands ………….
a. is considered as politically and economically unnecessary by everyone in Britain
b. could, in all likelihood, lead to another war between Britain and other powers
c. causes more problems than benefits to the British public
d. is felt by some people to be a continuation of the British imperial rule
e. has not been accepted anywhere but in Argentina

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