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TEST – 29

Ever since Nobel prize-winner Dr. Morris first advocated vitamin C as a common-cold war weapon more than 30 years ago, researchers have been busy trying to verify that claim. But so far, they’ve found little evidence that vitamin C prevents colds-in fact, there are more studies that say it doesn’t. But there is evidence that it can keep coughing and sneezing to a minimum, and that low levels of vitamin C in the body may be related to bronchitis.

1. In the passage we learn that Dr. Morris’s view as regards vitamin C ………. .
a. has greatly improved the treatment of bronchitis
b. has caused a revolution in medical studies
c. aroused very little interest among medical exports
d. was based on the results of years of research
e. has not been verified scientifically

2. As said in the passage, coughing and sneezing …………. .
a. should be taken seriously and treated accordingly
b. are the early symptoms of bronchitis
c. are now being effectively treated without vitamin C
d. can be reduced with the help of vitamin C
e. do not respond to any treatment whatsoever

3. During the last three decades there has been a great deal of scientific effort made to …………. .
a. convince the public of the dangers of vitamin C
b. prove that the common cold can be prevented by vitamin C
c. establish a connection between coughing and bronchitis
d. study the adverse effects of vitamin C
e. demonstrate how the body reacts to low levels of vitamin C

Since early times it has been thought that the actions of animals are unconscious. Behaviour, in this view, stems almost exclusively from instinct. If animals behave in ways that seem pretty clever, they do so without thinking about it. Animals can know things, the argument goes, but they don’t know that they know. Or do they know? Recent research reports suggest an astonishing depth of intelligence among animals. Although no one can yet prove the existence of animal consciousness, the data offered make a compelling case for at least considering it

4. It can be understood from the passage that traditionally, animals are believed to ………
a. behave not instinctively but logically
b. have an intelligence comparable with man’s
c. imitate man in many ways
d. act on instinct
e. know exactly what they are doing

5. It is told in the passage that modern research forces one to consider ….. .
a. why animals behave differently under different circumstances
b. the possibility of intelligence in animals
c. the means by which animal behaviour can be improved
d. how animals can be made to acquire new skills
e. animals to be the equal of man in intelligence

6. The passage says that, in the light of modern research, our traditional assumptions about animal behaviour ………… .
a. have been totally disproved
b. have been confirmed
c. have to be reconsidered
d. were indeed based on scientific fact
e. should never have been questioned

The first universities developed in Europe in the second half of the 12th century. By 1550 Europe boasted 115 institutions of higher learning, many of which had gained special privileges from existing regimes because of their close association with the Church. In most European countries, universities were designed mainly for the sons of nobility and gentry. Scholarly standards were low, and scholarship was irrelevant for most professions. Education for earning a livelihood in, say, medicine or law could be acquired after college by serving as an apprentice.
7. In the passage we learn that in the early years of the universities, …………. .
a. most students wanted to train for a profession
b. the Church disapproved of much of their teaching
c. Western European governments were not at all interested in education
d. medicine was the most popular subject for study
e. the majority of students came from upper class families

8. According to the passage, since most of the early universities enjoyed the support of the Church ……….. .
a. state authorities granted them various rights
b. the number of students they admitted increased rapidly
c. the academic level of the education they offered was extremely
d. law naturally became one of the major subjects offered
e. the education offered was free of charge

9. As one can understand from the passage, real professional skills ……….. .
a. were taught during the university years
b. were normally acquired through a period of apprenticeship
c. gained importance in the universities only after 1600
d. were acquired by nearly all university students
e. were taught only to the children of nobility

The effects of sleep loss are subject to a great many popular misconceptions. The belief that everyone must sleep 8 hours a night is a myth. According to the results of a recent survey on the subject, adults average about 7 to 7.5 hours of sleep per night, and many individuals function effectively with 5 to 6 hours of sleep. In fact, 30 percent of the population (slightly more in men) sleep less than 5 hours per night. Another significant fact is that sleep time decreases with age.

10. According told in the passage, the popular assumption that eight hours of sleep per night is essential ………… .
a. is only true for the elderly
b. has been supported by scientific evidence
c. is actually a fallacy
d. is only true for 20 percent of the population
e. is very rarely disputed

11. The survey referred to in the passage indicates that as people get older ………. .
a. they sleep less and less
b. they require more sleep than formerly
c. their sleep time varies between 7 and 8 hours
d. they rarely sleep less than 7 hours
e. sleep loss ceases to be a problem

12. It is pointed out in the passage that a sleep time under 8 hours …….. .
a. is not recommended in the survey
b. invariably leads to noticeable inefficiency
c. does not necessarily reduce a person’s efficiency
d. causes a number of complications in old people
e. is common among women but not among men

Until recently, many archaeologists thought that civilized communities first appeared in Egypt, though only a very short time before a similar development in Mesopotamia: a more recent opinion is now that the earliest advances may have taken place in Mesopotamia. Whichever view is followed, it is important to keep in mind that geographical conditions in both regions were not the same, and it can in fact be stated that in Mesopotamia environmental factors were not as wholly favourable as in the valley of the Nile.

13. A more recent view states that the beginnings of the development of civilization …………. .
a. have only recently been a major preoccupation among archaeologists
b. were wrongly assumed to se in Mesopotamia
c. were apparently not affected by geographical conditions
d. in Egypt were greatly hampered by unfavourable environmental factors
e. seem to have occurred in Mesopotamia rather than, as once thought, in Egypt.

14. It is pointed out in the passage that the Nile valley and Mesopotamia ……….. .
a. have never attracted the attention of historians
b. were equally suitable for the rise of civilization
c. could not have been the home of our earliest civilizations
d. do not share the same geographical conditions
e. are no longer as fertile as they used to be in early times

15. One can understand from the passage that ………….. .
a. our opinions of early history may sometimes need to be revised
b. archaeologists have never regarded either Egypt or Mesopotamia as the cradles of civilization
c. geographical conditions play an important role in the decline of civilization
d. the early civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia were not similar at all
e. archaeology has not, until recently, been concerned with this part of the world

Dates and periods are important to the study and discussion of history, because all historical phenomena are conditioned by time and are produced by the sequence of events. Periods, especially, are retrospective conceptions that we form about past events; they are useful to focus discussion, but very often they lead historical thought astray. Therefore, while it is certainly useful to speak of the Middle Ages and of the Victorian Age, those two abstract ideas have deluded many specialists and millions of newspaper readers into supposing that during certain decades called the Middle Ages, and again during certain decades called Age of Victoria, everyone thought or acted more or less in the same way-till at last Victoria died or the Middle Ages came to an end. But in fact there was no such similarity.
16. The passage suggests that contrary to common assumption; the behaviour of people ………..
a. was more uniform in the Middle Ages than in the Victorian Age
b. was not uniform, at all, in any given period
c. is a subject that should also be studied by historians
d. in any given period is always the same
e. is unrelated to the age they live in

17. As can be understood from the passage, the division of history into periods ………… .
a. is both useful and deceptive
b. is avoided by modern historians
c. was rejected in the Victorian Age
d. has been in use since the Middle Ages
e. serves no useful purpose at all

18. As we can understand from the passage, the study of history ………….. .
a. began in the Middle Ages and reached its height in the Victorian Age
b. has changed greatly in our time
c. requires a knowledge of dates and periods
d. includes a great variety of interrelated subjects
e. should concentrate on the reconstruction of past events

The famous American detective Thomas Osbourne was actually a great lover of music; he often played the violin and even composed some music. He would sometimes spend a whole afternoon, listening to music, and this would make him extremely happy. On such occasions he grew gentle and dreamy, quite unlike the sharp, clever and rather frightening detective that everybody knew him to be. But such a mood rarely lasted long; and when it left him he was more alert and businesslike than ever.

19. The writer describes a side of Detective Ousborne’s character which ………….
a. he thinks is unsuitable for a detective
b. is referred to as a major defect
c. was little known by the general public
d. had a bad effect upon his work
e. eventually led to his downfall

20. The writer points out that, after a quiet afternoon spent in listening to music, Ousborne………….
a. went back to his detective work with greater efficiency
b. would lose interest in his professional work
c. found himself behaving in an aggressive manner
d. wished he didn’t have to work as a detective
e. would take up his violin and play some of his own words

21. We can understand from the passage that Ousborne was generally regarded as ………….
a. being rather unreliable as a detective
b. a man of many and varied talents
c. rather a cruel person, even a wicked one
d. an extremely intelligent detective, and one to be feared
e. would take up his violin and play some of his own works

During the Crimean War, Marry Portmonth showed extraordinary qualities of determination and organization ability. In the English hospital where she worked, conditions at first were terrible; dirt and disease probably caused more deaths among the soldiers than did the wounds received in battle. Still, under these circumstances, Marry Portmonth gradually built up a highly disciplined nursing staff and, together with more adequate medical supplies, she was able to improve adequate conditions and be of real service to soldiers. However, the work was hard, and, as a result, her own health suffered.

22. One important point the passage makes is that Marry Portmonth ………….
a. would have been more efficient if she had had a more qualified nursing staff
b. was not liked by the nursing staff because of her harsh discipline
c. hated the terrible conditions she was working in and wanted to get away
d. failed to improve conditions in the hospital as she herself had poor health
e. overcame, with great efficiency, the problems she faced in a military hospital

23. It is clear from the passage that, because Marry Portmonth was a determined person, with a gift for organizing, she ………….
a. volunteered to serve in the Crimean War
b. was widely criticized by her staff
c. did little nursing herself
d. was able to succeed in her work
e. was selected by the army to work as a nurse in the hospital

24. As the writer points out in the passage, conditions in the military hospital were, at the beginning, so bad that ………….
a. they accounted for more deaths among the soldiers than the war itself
b. little could be done improve them
c. Marry Portmonth felt that she had little chance of success
d. many of the nursing staff fell ill
e. medical supplies soon ran out

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