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OKUMA TEST 31

TEST – 31

Today, Canada is in the grip of a sudden industrial revolution. While the first, something from the 1860s to the 1960s, shattered the main section of the Canadian economy from agriculture to industry, the new revolution is changing the economy away from traditional smokestack manufacturing industries to those based upon information, services and new technologies. It took the country years to get used to the cultural and social changes resulting from the first industrial revolution, and it would be rashly optimistic to assume that Canadians will not face serious stresses in coming to terms with the changes that are transforming the workplace today.

1. It can be understood from the passage that the Canadian economy ____.
a. was, at the beginning, largely an agricultural one
b. was, from the start, based on heavy industry
c. has, over the years, undergone very little radical changes
d. has recently entered a period of recession
e. has invariably kept a balance between agriculture and industry

2. The passage points out that the change in Canada from an agricultural to an industrial economy ____.
a. was bitterly opposed by a large segment of society
b. was achieved in a very short period of time, actually only about two decades
c. made the use of information technologies indispensable
d. brought with it many new cultural and social conditions which took years to resolve
e. brought little benefit to the country as a whole

3. The author has the opinion that the Canadians____.
a. will find the second industrial revolution hard to cope with
b. are closing down heavy industry far too soon
c. don’t pay adequate attention to conditions in the workplace
d. may turn back to an agricultural economy
e. have already lost their control over manufacturing industries

So many books was written on computers, computer programming, and computer programming languages, particularly C++. To write another book on C++, even the newest C++ IV, probably seems difficult to most, and it is with mild anxiety that, I, the author, take place in this project. But, some good reasons can be stated for doing just that. Most computer professionals will agree that the field of computer and information science has quickly become a valid discipline for academia, and that changes are occurring in computer programming languages. Both of these facts demand that a new direction be taken in presenting the subject.

4. One can understand from the passage that the writer is somewhat apprehensive in case _____ .
a. computer sales should drop sharply
b. developments in computer programming will become more and more costly
c. his book will be felt, by many people, to be superfluous
d. computer programming should be taken over by professionals
e. programming languages should become far more complicated

5. We can understand from the passage that publications on computer technology _____ .
a. are only concerned with C++ computer programming
b. have already reached a very high number
c. are brought out by academia for academia
d. invariably cause a great deal of public reaction
e. are largely repetitive and very costly

6. We understand that the author feels that his new book on C++ is justified because _____ .
a. computer science is a new science with little relevant literature
b. computer professionals have not as yet recognized the changes taking place in computer science
c. it will boost the sale of computers throughout the world
d. it introduces a new approach to computer programming languages
e. it will change the concept of computer science among academia

”Human rights” is a fairly new name for what were previously called ”the rights of man”. It was Margaret Fuller in the 1950s who promoted the use of the expression ”human rights” when she discovered, through her work in the United Nations, that the rights of men were not considered in some parts of the world to include the rights of women. The ”rights of man” at an earlier date had itself replaced the original term ”natural rights” in part, perhaps, for the concept of natural law, with which the concept of natural rights was logically connected, had become a subject of controversy.

7. The reader is explained the stages by which _____ .
a. the United Nations carries out its procedures
b. Margaret Fuller developed the idea of human rights
c. the term ”human rights” came into use
d. the various ”rights of man” came to be recognized
e. human rights are today being violated throughout the world

8. By referring to Margaret Fuller, the passage explains that before the 1950s, the term ”he right of man” _____ .
a. had always been used in conjunction with ”the rights of women”
b. had come under severe criticism
c. had long been a subject of controversy among politicians
d. had already become irrelevant in world politics
e. had often been misunderstood by some nations

9. It is clear in the passage that the disagreement over the concept of natural law _____ .
a. was actually of no significance in many parts of the world
b. meant that the term ”natural rights” was no longer acceptable
c. forced Margaret Fuller to introduce the term ”human rights”
d. undermined the work of the United Nations
e. was closely connected with the growing recognition of the rights of women

The shopping centre emerged in the early 1920s in the suburbs that surrounded American cities. Suburbs of that time were residential and depended on the traditional city centres for shopping. The first suburban commercial centres had three certain features: they consisted of a number of stores built and managed by a single developer; they were usually located at an important intersection, and they provided plenty of free, off street parking. These shopping centres were like small-town shopping districts, both in their architecture, which was carefully traditional, and in their position, which integrated them into the surrounding neighbourhood. The stores faced the street and the parking places were usually in the rear.

10. One can understand from the passage that before the introduction of shopping centres those living in the residential suburban areas _____ .
a. were anxious to keep commercial activities there to a minimum
b. usually preferred to go to nearby small towns in order to do their shopping
c. found parking a great problem when they went downtown to shop
d. had to go into the centre of the city to do their shopping
e. felt that shopping facilities could not be integrated into such neighbourhoods

11. It is clear in the passage that a popular location for the early shopping centres in the United States was _____ .
a. the very heart of a big city with roads directly serving all the suburbs
b. one near an important road junction with space enough to provide adequate perking facilities
c. the villages bordering on the suburbs of a town since they too would benefit from the facilities
d. a suitable point midway between two or three suburban areas
e. one that was in the hands of a single developer and architect

12. We learn from the passage that the new shopping villages were like small-town shopping areas _____ .
a. since many architects felt these could hardly be integrated effectively into suburban conditions
b. although the stories faced onto the parking lots, not the streets
c. as regards both the architectural style and the arrangement of the building
d. even though the architecture was very different
e. as most developers wanted to bring something new into the commercial activities of the region

Many modern investigators have done research in the field of sleep and their conclusions have often differed extensively. Yet they all have agreed on one point: sleep is nature’s great restorer. Sleep induces such aspects as absence of voluntary motion, loss of awareness and the harsh sounds that we call snoring. There are also changes in metabolism, in the pulse rate, in blood pressure, in bodily temperature, in nerve functions and in the nature of bodily reflexes. Sleep is characteristic of both plant and animal life. There were several theories at the start of the present century to answer the question “Why do we sleep?”. According to one of them,
nerve cells shrank throughout waking hours so we couldn’t make contact with other people any more and became sleepy. Another theory was that some sort of toxin accumulated during waking hours. In time, this toxin would affect the nervous system so that it would slow down. According to the most widely accepted explanation-the so
called “cerebral-anaemia” theory-sleep was brought about because the blood supply to the brain diminished. However, today we know that none of these theories were valid. For instance, it has been proven that the blood supply to the brain increases during sleep. This is accurately the opposite of “cerebral-anaemia” theory. In fact, this increased circulation has a restorative value. What are some disorders of sleep? Somnambulism is very common. About 40% of university students talk in their sleep. When they wake up, they don’t remember anything. Another disorder, somnambulism, is
not so common. You may have seen people walking while they are sleeping. This may result from an emotional disturbance and the person again doesn’t remember anything when he wakes up. Muscle cramps sometimes disturb sleep as well. (Of course they may also occur when one is awake.) Insomnia, or inability to go to sleep is one of the most common conditions about which adults should consult a doctor. Some are temporary; however, others should need psychological treatment. Sleeping sickness is another serious disorder. It is usually long-lasting and may cause death.

13. “accumulated” refers to
a) appeared
b) plunged
c) increased
d) disappeared
e) doubled

14. Which of the following may come out if a person is emotionally disturbed?
a) Sleeping sickness
b) Somnambulism
c) Muscle cramps
d) Sleep-talking
e) Snoring

15. Which of the following is not a feature of sleep?
a) Changes in the pulse rate
b) Absence of voluntary motion
c) Increased awareness
d) Snoring
e) Alterations in the body temperature

A phobia is a morbid (i.e. not normal), recurring fear that appears to be unwarranted by actual conditions. In the early part of the 20th century, physicians and psychologists used technical terms for various fears, or phobias, but the more recent trend has been to drop the technical jargon and simply to state what the object of the individual’s fear is. For instance, formerly the style was to speak of “acrophobia”, whereas the same condition is now called “phobia of high places” and phobia about crossing water was formerly called by the technical term “gephyrophobia”. One of the few terms that has survived is “claustrophobia” which is a fear of small, confined, closed spaces. The individual suffering from claustrophobia becomes very tense and anxious whenever he is in a small room or any small, closed space. He often experiences tightness in the chest, rapid pulse and sudden weakness in the limbs, and there is a risk of fainting. The most common characteristic is that the individual feels this fear even when he recognizes that it is unwarranted, that is there is no real cause for alarm. The individual recognizes that the symptoms arise from his own feelings and not from factors in his environment. He is aware that the factors within him start this fear whenever he is in a small, closed place, such as a lift. He feels helpless to avoid the reaction when he is in such a place. His defence against the symptoms is to avoid small, enclosed places.

16. “recurring” refers to
a) aggressive
b) hostile
c) restless
d) temporary
e) repeating

17. “jargon” refers to
a) vocabulary
b) frame
c) trend
d) usage
e) situation

18. Which of the following is correct?
a) According to the recent trend, fear of crossing water
should be called “gephyrophobia”.
b) Although the person with claustrophobia experienced
unwanted physical changes when he is in a small,
closed area, fortunately he or she never loses
consciousness.
c) Certain factors in the environment may make any person
phobic.
d) A phobic person never accepts the fact that there is no
real cause for alarm and that his fear is rooted in his own
feelings.
e) The only defence mechanism seen in phobic people is
nothing but try to avoid the object of their phobia.

Since 1920 there has developed a branch of general science perhaps not recognized everywhere; traumatic surgery. It has greatly been enhanced by the experiments of two world wars. This type of surgery relates to the psychic effects of injury. If has been said that it is the only inescapable type of pathology we have ever known. It is to this condition that first aid and much of the present day emergency surgery is addressed. The general surgeon is called upon to care for wounds and haemorrhage; to deal with foreign bodies, such as bullets and projectiles in the tissues; to treat burns, scalds, sprains, fractures, and dislocations. If there is a head injury, it may be complicated by an injury to the brain requiring craniotomy. If the chest is injured or ribs broken, the lung may be penetrated. Severe blows or crushes involving the abdomen or trunk may produce, besides contusions of the muscles, ruptured viscera, as the kidney, intestines, or bladder. There may be internal bleeding, not at once detected, but manifested some hours afterward by general symptoms of haemorrhage. Many injuries are received where bones are broken but in which the full extent of the damage may not be apparent until X-ray films are made. This is mostly true of some fractures of the spine. In all of these different classes of injury, for checking bleeding, and for restoration of lacerated tissues and complicated fractures to something like their normal continuity, emergency operations may be required. Many injuries may result in serious loss of substance, amputation will be in store for some, and devitalisation of tissue, especially bone, may cause chronic suppuration which will necessitate time-consuming and wide reparative and plastic surgery.

19. Which of the following is correct?
a) If two world wars hadn’t been fought; traumatic surgery
wouldn’t have been known.
b) All injuries indicate that there are broken bones.
c) “Foreign bodies” are the dead bodies of the enemy
soldiers.
d) Unless X-ray films are taken, it is difficult to tell the
amount of damage.
e) X-ray films are not necessarily to be taken to detect fractures
of the spine; these can easily be understood by the surgeon.

20. Traumatic surgery was known……………..
a) when World War II began
b) till the end of World War II
c) after 1920
d) when World War I began
e) until the second half of the 20th century

21. Which of the following is not a medical name?
a) pathology
b) projectice
c) crainotomy
d) viscera
e) haemorrhage

Tattooing is a world of Polynesian origin, anglicized from the Tahitian “tatu”, denoting the practice of making permanent coloured designs or figures in the skin by means of small punctures or incisions, which receive various dyes or pigments. The colouring is mainly dark blue and dull red. A similar custom, known as cicatrisation or scar-tattooing, consists in repeatedly cutting the skin at the same place so that in healing a raised scar is left. Both varieties of tattooing may be found among the same people, as in the case of the natives of the South Sea Islands. Amongst the Admiralty Islanders, the Fijians, the Gonds and the Todas of India, the inhabitants of the Liu-Kiu Islands and other races, colour-tattooing is or was, confined to the women, and the Latuka of the upper Nile Valley are an example of a people among whom scar-tattooing is practiced upon women only. Colour-tattooing is generally ornamental, but scar-tattooing is more
frequently used to produce distinguishing tribal marks. The latter variety is practiced by a number of African peoples, while the Bangala of the Middle Congo scar the whole body for ornamental purposes. Among some peopks there is a connection between tattooing and marriage. Therefore, in the Solomon Islands a girl is not eligible for marriage until she has been subjected to an atrociously cruel process of tattooing on the face and chest, and the Australian aborigines inflict fearful scars on the backs of their young girls before
marriage. The Formosans tattoo the faces of girls prior to marriage; and among the Papuans of New Guinea, unmarried girls are tattooed all over, except on the face, which is adorned in this way at the time of marriage. Colour-tattooing of an ornamental kind reached its most artistic development among the Maoris of New Zealand and the Japanese, but both these peoples, like several others, have largely abandoned the practice. With the Malays, tattooing appears to have been a reward of the successful head-hunter. Sailors and some other groups in Western countries do some tattooing, mainly in one colour, making figures, such as stars and flags, on their hands, arms, and chests.

22. Which of the following is CORRECT?
a) Tattooing can also be used to heal cuts in the skin.
b) In some tribes tattooing is restricted to the women
only.
c) In general, scar-tattooing is commonly used to look more
attractive.
d) In the west tattooing is restricted to sailors alone.
e) Tattoos do not last lifelong no matter how skilfully they
are made; in other words, colours start to fade after a few
years.

23. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?
a) A raised scar in the skin often indicates the tribe the
person is a member of.
b) Scar – tattooing is very decorative with the red colour
of the blood that flows as a result of cutting the skin.
c) When the cut in the skin heals, these appears a scar
shaped like a groove.
d) Tattoos have to be remade at certain intervals.
e) Light colours are preferred to dark ones in tattooing.

24. Which piece of information is not included in the passage?
a) Types of designs used in tattooing
b) Types of dyes used in tattooing
c) Main colours favoured in tattooing
d) The connection between marital status and tattooing
e) Which language the word “tattooing” comes from

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