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OKUMA TEST 34

TEST – 34

Many art museums and galleries and many individuals in the art world faced financial problems in 1975 as the effects of world recession deepened. On the surface things seemed to continue as before, with important exhibitions in major museums attracting large crowds. But smaller galleries, and the artists whose work was shown by their resourceful proprietors, fared less well, and over the longer term it is the work of young artists that determines the course of art for the future.

1. The point made in the passage is that the recession in the 1970s……….
A. forced many young artists to give up their profession
B. led to the immediate closure of several major museums in the West
C. was one of the most serious in economic history
D. didn’t at first appear to hit hard at the art world
E. meant exhibitions were regarded as unnecessary luxuries

2. One can infer from the passage that if a generation of young artists is lost ……
A. this would not have a damaging effect on art museums and galleries even in the long run
B. the future development of art will be greatly hampered
C. recession in the art market would not last very long
D. smaller galleries would benefit from it
E. the organizing of exhibitions would be even more costly

3. According to the passage, the people in the art world who were most strongly affected by the recession……..
A. were young artists and the owners of small galleries
B. tried to balance their losses by buying up the work of young artists
C. were the well established art dealers
D. decided to stop exhibitions altogether
E. resorted to all sorts of methods of attracting large crowds to their galleries

Computers should never have acquired the exalted status they now have. Fascinating and invaluable as they are, even the most advanced have less brain power than a three-year-old. They do, however, score on single-mindedness. The three-year-old uses his brain not only to think but also to do tasks like seeing, hearing and running about, which need rapid and sophisticated electro-mechanical interactions- we too run on electricity. But the computer just sits there and sends spacecraft to the moon or reorganizes the world banking system, which is very much easier. That’s why man’s dream of robot servants is still a long way off.

4. The main point made in the passage is that the human brain………..
A. is much inferior to any known computer
B. is infinitely more complex and powerful than any known computer.
C. reaches its maximum efficiency at the age of three
D. is not as complicated and mysterious as has usually been taught.
E. has been entirely reproduced in computer form

5. It is explained in the passage that the efficiency of the computer ……..
A. will soon make it possible for the man to be served by robots
B. depends on the speed with which the data are fed
C. can best be appreciated in the decision-making positions
D. is the result of its being concentrated on one task at a time
E. depends upon sophisticated electro-mechanical interactions

6. The author feels that the computers ……..
A. are becoming unaffordable as they get more advanced
B. have contributed immensely to the improvement of living standards
C. have been unnecessarily overrated
D. will be a major force behind all future progress
E. are capable of doing all the tasks the human brain performs even more efficiently

The dramatic growth of world’s population in the twentieth
century has been on a scale without parallel in human society. Most of this growth has occurred since 1950 and is known as “population explosion”. Between 1950 and 1980 the world population increased from 2.5 to over 4 billion and by the end of the century, this figure will have risen to at least 6 billion. Growth of this size cannot continue indefinitely. Recent forecasts suggest that the total population will level out at between 10 and 15 billion in the mid twenty-first century. Already there are encouraging signs that the rate of increase in many less developed countries is beginning to slow down.

7. According to the passage, at no period in Human history has there been
A. so much consensus among nations concerning the population of the world.
B. a sharp decline in population like the one since 1980.
C. a universal fear about the future of man
D. as comprehensive a study of population problems as the one envisaged now
E. a population explosion of the magnitude of the one in this century

8. It is pointed out in the passage that the increase in the world population
A. is a highly encouraging sign for the general economy
B. is expected to continue even faster until 2050
C. will not continue into the next century
D. has been going on noticeably since 1950
E. has been much faster in the industrialized countries.

9. It has been forecast that, by the middle of the next century
A. various measures will have been taken to encourage population growth
B. the population growth rate in less developed countries will be much higher than that in previous years
C. the world population will be stabilized at around 10 to 15 billion
D. the rate of increase will still be rising
E. the rate of population increase will have doubled the 1950 rate

Many substances, whether man-made or natural, can cause harm to man or the environment. Some of these reach the environment in waste streams; however, emission limits and environmental quality standards can, in some instances, reduce the amounts released. But some other substances cannot be controlled in this way because they are released, not in industrial waste streams, but through the use of disposal of products which contain them. In many cases these substances pose little or no threat if the product containing them is used and disposed properly. The right way to deal with them is usually through controls over their supply, use and disposal.

10. According to the passage, the threat of certain substances to the environment ……. .
A. is far less than that to man.
B. could be reduced by enforcing emission limits and environmental controls
C. has been unnecessarily emphasized
D. has to date been completely ignored
E. can be eliminated by the use of industrial waste streams

11. The author points out that the danger posed to man by many substances …..
A. is unrelated to environmental pollution
B. is even greater than generally admitted
C. continues to grow despite constant control of disposal systems
D. is solely due to the use of industrial waste streams
E. arises from their misuse and wrong disposal

12. The passage is concerned with the question of …..
A. how the harmful effects of certain substances can be brought under control
B. why industrial waste streams have caused so much pollution
C. whether man-made substances or natural ones cause more pollution
D. what measures are to be taken against the supply of dangerous substances
E. who is responsible for taking the required measures

In one century of strenuous research a huge amount of source material about Michelangelo has been collected, reviewed, edited including letters poems, contracts, receipts, and biographies. Biographical and artistic data have been checked and rechecked, sometimes corroborating and sometimes correcting our previous ideas, and an abundance of new facts has been revealed. Long lost works have been rediscovered and every single known piece has been studied in its formal iconographic, genetic, and functional aspects. The artist’s character, his daily habits, his working methods, his personal attitudes, and his artistic and political opinions have been traced as well as the peculiarities of the people with whom he had contact. Thus modern history of art has formed an image of Michelangelo that is much nearer to truth than those presented by his first biographers.

13. We learn from the passage that, over the past hundred years ……..
A. a vast amount of new facts concerning Michelangelo have come to light.
B. the research carried out about Michelangelo has proved inadequate and, in places, irrelevant.
C. scholars have concentrated solely upon Michelangelo’s artistic creativity
D. in spite of much research, little has been learned about Michelangelo.
E. though many new biographies have been written about Michelangelo, they are all far short of truth about him.

14. It is clear from the passage that the source material concerning Michelangelo ……..
A. has shed light only on his daily routine life.
B. consists only of books written about him by his contemporaries.
C. has taken nearly a hundred years to be annotated and published.
D. has not received adequate critical attention.
E. not only includes his letters, poems, and biographies but also documents relating to his commissions and sales.

15. In accordance with the passage, the new data about Michelangelo………
A. have led to similar studies about his contemporaries.
B. have in some instances contradicted the traditional view of him.
C. have full confirmed the views expensed by his early biographers
D. have created a great deal of controversy among historians.
E. have yet to be analyzed and collated.

The fact the brain is divided into a left and a right half is not a new discovery. Once the skull is removed, the division is clear to the naked eye, and it is a common feature of brains throughout the animal kingdom. What is interesting about this division in man is that each half seems to have developed specialized functions, the left side appearing to be better at some tasks, and the right side better at others. The most obvious difference in functioning is that the left side of the brain receives sensations from and controls the right side of the body and vice versa. The reasons for this are still unclear. Despite a number of interesting theories, there is no obvious advantage in such a cross over.

16. As the writer stresses, it has long been known that ……..
A. damage to the left half of the brain produces far more serious defects.
B. the human brain , unlike that of other animals, has a very complicated structure.
C. the right side of the brain has the same functions as the left side.
D. the left side of the brain works more efficiently than the right.
E. in the animal world, brains consist of two halves.

17. We can learn from the text that, in man, each half of the brain…….
A. is characterized by a crossover of innumerable nerves.
B. functions in full harmony with the other in all activities.
C. performs certain specialized tasks.
D. controls the corresponding side of the body.
E. can be removed without damage being caused to the other.

18. The passage is mainly about…….
A. the recent history of brain studies.
B. how the body is controlled by the brain
C. the reason why there is a crossover of nerves in the brain.
D. the division of the brain into two halves and the way each half functions.
E. how the sensations of the body are transmitted to the brain.

For years the theory of higher education in the United States operated something like this: men went to university to get rich, and women went to university to marry rich men. It was a wonderful little set up, nearly mathematical in its precision. To disturb it would have been to rock an American institution. During the 60s though, this theory lost much of its popularity. As the nation began to recognize the folly of relegating women to a secondary role, women soon joined men in what once were male-only pursuits. This rebellious decade pushed women toward independence, showed them their potential and compelled them to take charge of their lives. Many women took this opportunity. Since then feminine autonomy has been the rule, not exception, at least among university women.

19. In accordance with the passage, the view had long been held in the States that……….
A. the independence of women would impair the integrity of family life.
B. only rich men had the opportunity to have higher education
C. the rights of women were first recognized at the universities.
D. a woman’s potential could be brought to the fore only through education.
E. universities were the place where women found rich husbands.

20. The writer emphasizes that, from the 1960s onwards, women in America ……….
A. became more and more dominated by men in their working life.
B. began to assert themselves in society, both as individuals and professionally.
C. became less and less interested in their fight for emancipation.
D. began to go to universities in much greater numbers.
E. became aware of the fact that the universities were prejudiced against them.

21. It is clear from the passage that most American women today ………
A. are obsessed with their inferior status in business life.
B. are not content with the change in their lives.
C. regard marriage as outdated and potentially harmful.
D. claim and enjoy a position of full independence.
E. still prefer to play a secondary role in society.

The collection of foreign intelligence, which is the pursuit of a special kind of information, is an obligatory service for any government having even the most elementary international associations. Nations must devise a strategy to provide for both their security and well-being. History teaches us that
responsibility cannot be met without knowledge of the political, economic and military capabilities and intentions of other nations. Indeed, advance knowledge of these matters, or its absence could well settle the fate of a great nation, especially in an era when a single nation or consortium of nations is capable of smashing another society in a single stroke, or of controlling it under the threat of poised catastrophe. The well-being of any great nation will depend on decisions taken by others, which must be foreseen, correctly analyzed, and countered.

22. As is obvious from the passage, a nation for its own well-being even survival ……..
A. needs to know what is going on in other countries and what is being planned .
B. must have a good standing army to defend itself.
C. should be on good terms with several other countries as a safeguard.
D. must be prepared to counteract any internal revolt.
E. should not put much faith in foreign intelligence to maintain its security.

23. The writer stresses that, in our time, it is ……….
A. a major concern in foreign intelligence to study the political and economic developments in neighbour states.
B. usual for governments to rely more on military strength than on foreign intelligence.
C. possible for one nation to be completely wiped out by another or others
D. almost impossible to get reliable intelligence about other nations
E. scarcely necessary to anticipate attack from, consortium of nations.

24. According to the passage, foreign intelligence is regarded as ………
A. the unfair pursuit of the data relating to the military potential of another nation
B. essential for the economic well-being of a country.
C. clandestine interference in the affairs of another nation
D. the acquirement of a particular type of information.
E. a series of strategies devised to counter any military threat.

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