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OKUMA TEST 35

TEST – 35

A subject in which there has been lots of interest recently is the acquisition of language. ‘Normal’ children, that is, those who have not had a particularly rich environment-usually begin talking after the first year of their life. By eighteen months they have a vocabulary of about half a dozen words and at two years a vocabulary of more than a hundred words. The traditional view has been that during the first year of life, babies are not mature enough to learn languages. Talking, however, is only the outer manifestation of the development of the language long before he first utters a meaningful word a baby can be observed responding to the language of the others.

1. As explained in the passage, the way in which a language is acquired …….
A. is noticeably affected by the social background of the child.
B. follows a very similar pattern in all children.
C. has lately attracted a great deal of attention.
D. does not depend at all upon the age of a child.
E. is best observed during, the first two years of life.

2. In accordance with the passage, one can define “talking” as ……..
A. the first means for a child to communicate with others.
B. the positive proof that a language is being learned.
C. the manifestation of a child’s physical development.
D. the first step towards acquiring a language.
E. a way of building up a vocabulary.

3. The passage makes tells that we now have ………
A. a revised review of language acquisition, among normal children.
B. a distorted view of how a child begins to communicate.
C. returned to the traditional theory concerning language acquisition among children.
D. a rather contradictory theory concerning the acquisition of language two-year-olds.
E. the means and techniques to speed up vocabulary acquisition among one-year-olds.

Economic dynamics have resolutely shifted from the national economy to the world economy. From now on any country -and also any business, especially a large one- that wants to prosper will have to accept that it is the world economy that leads and that domestic economic policies will succeed only if they strengthen, or at least, do not impair the country’s international competitive position. This may be the most important. It surely is the most striking feature of the changed world economy.
4. The writer tells that one significant development in economy has been ……..
A. the stress on the importance of domestic economic policies
B. the growing importance of national economic policies
C. a keener competition between domestic and international companies
D. that national economies are now closely interrelated with the world economy
E. the decline of competition in home markets

5. It is clear from the passage that, for a country to achieve economic prosperity, it …….
A. has to encourage and support big corporations.
B. must protect itself from new dynamics in domestic economy.
C. has to think and plan in terms of World economy.
D. must be ruthless in economic policies.
E. must create competition within the domestic market.

6. The passage is about ……….
A. the growing importance of internationalism in the field of economics
B. the dangers of foreign competition in trade
C. the dynamics in the implementation of domestic economic policies
D. the question of how big business can influence the world economy negatively
E. some of the more striking features of the current economic policies

In Britain, the Queen is a constitutional monarch. In law she is the head of the executive, an integral part of the legislature, had of the judiciary, commander- in-chief of the armed forces and temporal head of the Church of England. Actually, the Queen’s role is purely formal: she reigns, but she does not rule. In all important respects she acts only on the advice of her ministers. However, she still plays an important role symbolically as Head of State and Head of the Commonwealth.

7. The passage is mainly about ______.
A. how the Queen’s progress could be restrained
B. the Queen’s firm control of the government through her executive powers
C. the powers the Queen has and the role she plays in the rule of the country
D. the influence the Queen has over the Church of England
E. the need for the abolishment of the monarchy in Britain
8. It is clear from the passage that the Queen’s power _______.
A. extends through all the main institutions of the state
B. is strictly confined to the affairs of the Commonwealth ı
C. is controlled by the legislature
D. depends fundamentally on the support of the armed forces
E. has no legal basis

9. It is pointed out in the passage that on all serious issues the Queen ______.
A. relies heavily on the guidance of the judiciary
B. does not act on her own initiative, but consults the government
C. acts in accordance with the principles of the Church of England
D. turns to the Commonwealth for advice and support
E. keeps aloof so as to maintain her symbol status

The 1970s were a period of marked economic recession in the West. The effects were widespread; even the publishing sector was badly hit. Inflation went on pushing up the costs of paper and printing, increasing the price of books generally and reducing the amount of money available for the publication of new and experimental work. There was a growing sense, in the world of literature no less than in other spheres of production, that this crisis must involve changes that would be neither simple nor temporary.

10. It is stressed in the passage that, as a result of the economic recession experienced in the West in the 1970s both publishers and writers _______.
A. felt that a long and difficult period lay ahead of them.
B. made huge profits from the sale of new and experimental works.
C. were in agreement with the measures being introduced to check inflation.
D. recognized the need to keep down book prices.
E. were extremely worried about the rising cost of living.

11. The writer implies that, due to growing inflation, publishers________.
A. took temporary measures to overcome the recession.
B. ceased to publish literary works.
C. introduced a number of radical changes.
D. could no longer afford to bring out new and experimental work.
E. refused to get involved in the crisis.

12. In accordance with the passage, the recession in the 1970s in the West ______.
A. did not have a long term effect on the economy.
B. affected really all sectors including that of publishing.
C. speeded up the rate of inflation to an alarming extent.
D. was hardly felt in the world of literature.
E. caused the sudden decline of various spheres of production.

Generally educational processes involve not only learning but teaching as well. There is however, no logical connection in this case. Education can go on without any teaching. We can say it was a “real education” for someone to take a boat out on his own, implying that he learnt something desirable without anybody having been there to teach him the lesson. There are many forms of learning that go on without teaching, and ‘educative’ learning does not mean that the learning must take place in a teaching situation. It may be argued that most things are learnt more rapidly and more reliably in a classroom situation. But even so, learning is not dependent upon teaching.

13. As is emphasized in the passage, it is generally assumed that ______.
A. schools are not important at all in the learning process
B. teachers do not further take place in the learning process
C. education means both learning and teaching.
D. people learn most effectively by themselves
E. a good education makes teaching a-priority.

14. The writer states that true education _______.
A. is what everybody desires to have.
B. can only be provided in a classroom.
C. results from the acquisition of all kind of knowledge .
D. is an ideal which cannot be achieved in life .
E. can be acquired without the help of a teacher.

15. The writer confesses that a teacher may often make the process of learning _____.
A. more interesting.
B. quicker and more dependable .
C. safer and more regular.
D. a purely formal affair.
E. too “educative” to be effective.

In many African and Latin American countries the rate of population growth appears to be constant or even rising, but in Asia there are signs that the growth rate has peaked and is now declining. The different experiences may reflect differences in government policies: in 1980 a quarter of less developed countries had no official family planning programme. The success stories involve India, where in 1980, 23 per cent of married women used contraceptives and the birth rate fell from 4.4 to 3.6 per cent per annum between 1960 and 1980. The successful cases show what can be done, but private incentives and attitudes still favour large families in many poor societies; so, simply providing facilities for family planning may not be enough.

16. It is implied in the passage that, as regards population growth,
A. most less developed countries have adopted policies against family planning
B. family planning has not yet received adequate attention in the industrialized countries
C. India has taken no serious measures to check it
D. the case of Africa and Latin America is unlike that of Asia
E. Africa is the only continent to show a remarkable decline in the birth rate

17. In accordance with the passage, one reason why family planning in many less developed countries has failed, is that _____.
A. contraceptives have only been supplied to married women
B. the use of contraceptives puts a strain on the family budget
C. married women have not been taught how to use contraceptives
D. governments have been unable to sponsor birth control policies
E. people prefer to have large families

18. We can infer from the passage that the success of a family planning policy _____ .
A. has already been demonstrated in many Latin American countries
B. is always undermined by poverty and unemployment
C. depends to a large extent, on the attitudes of the people themselves
D. was first observed in Africa and Asia
E. is indicated by a fall in the birth rate of at least 3.6 per cent

National income per head is an indicator of the standard of living. However, this measure is necessarily a rough one. For instance, it cannot take into account new and better products such as television, man-made fibres, faster flight, long-playing records or the lowly plastic bucket; nor does it indicate changes in the distribution of income between rich-and-poor; nor in the length of the working week. Data of national income per head may also conceal important changes in the “quality of life” as for example, in out physical environment. This is affected by such things are traffic congestion, noise, water and air pollution.

19. It is stressed in the passage that the standard of living in a country _______ .
A. bears no relationship to national income per head.
B. can be roughly understood from the amount of national income per head.
C. is in no way related to the purchasing power of the individual.
D. has no effect on the environment.
E. is primarily based on the number of working hours per week.

20. It is clear from the passage that, in assessing the standard of living in a country ______ .
A. the quality of life should be taken into consideration.
B. the income of the rich is of major importance.
C. the state of the poor should be disregarded.
D. the prices of goods and services need to be stable.
E. no importance should be attached to questions of pollution.

21. The passage is mainly about ______.
A. the relationship between the national economy and the environment.
B. the importance of manufactured goods in the improvement of the standard of living.
C. the unreliability of national income per head as the only indicator of the standard of living.
D. the need to adjust the distribution of income between rich and poor
E. the difficulties of maintaining the standard of living without harming the environment

Benjamin Britten (1913-76) did as much as anyone to establish English music on the forefront of the international stage. Much of his music seems to have an immediate appeal to large audiences and definitely his many stage works earned him a quite exceptional prestige both at home and abroad. Peter Grimes (1945), Bill Budd (1951). Gloriana (1953), and A Midsummer Night’s Dream (1960) all show his mastery of stage technique and the first two are also moving human documents. On a smaller scale he has achieved as much with his chamber operas as such as The Rape of Lucretia (1946), Albert Herring (1947), The Turn of the Screw (1954). His operatic output was crowned by Death in Venice (1973). If he had written nothing else, these dramatic works would have marked him out as a composer of outstanding imaginative gifts.

22. The writer implies that the reputation of English music abroad _______.
A. is related to the piece of music in drama
B. rests solely on Britten’s chamber operas
C. continued to rise up to the time of Britten
D. owes a great deal to Britten’s achievements
E. has always been consistently high.

23. The writer thinks that, Britten’s works Peter Grimes and Billy Budd in particular ______.
A. can be regarded as being of minor interest
B. are lacking in artistic qualities
C. show the human condition in a most effective manner
D. have earned Britten international fame
E. demonstrate the decline of his creativity

24. It is inferred from the passage that Britten’s works ______ .
A. earned him a fortune in his life time
B. were popular for a comparatively short period of his life
C. consisted only of full-scale operatic works
D. are only appreciated by real music lovers
E. effectively combine music and drama

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