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OKUMA TEST 36

TEST – 36

Television has been altering the way people live for thirty
years. It influences nearly every aspect of modern life: how
people use leisure time, how news is reported, how information is learned, and how people think and feel. Children are particularly susceptible to the effects of television because their minds are growing, developing, and learning much faster than those of adults. Whereas television could be used as an educational tool for children, more often simple, entertaining cartoons with little or no educational value are shown. Social scientists, teachers, and parents are troubled by the kinds of television programs children choose to watch. These groups of people are concerned about the media’s impact on young children. They are worried about the effects of televised violence on society as well as commercials for sugar-coated food. Most importantly, however, they feel television is one factor that causes declining math and reading scores among schoolchildren. Because of the excessive time spent watching TV, children are spending less time reading and thinking independently.
Indeed, youngsters are watching a lot of television – an average of nearly four hours a day and about 25 hours a week, according to an A. C. Neilsen Co. survey. The set stays on 53 hours a week in homes with pre-schoolers as opposed to 43 hours weekly in the average U.S. household. Upon entering kindergarten at age 5, an American child already has spent more hours viewing television than he or she would spend earning a college degree. By the child’s eighteenth birthday, more time has been spent watching television than on any other single activity except sleep. The
high-school graduate will have attended school for 11,000 hours, but he or she will have sat for almost twice that many hours in front of the set, exposed to an estimated 35,000 commercials and 18,000 murders.

1. What is the most essential thing that social scientists, teachers, and parents are concerned about?
A. They spend less time reading and thinking.
B. They become violent
C. Television causes declining math and reading scores
D. Television has been changing the way people live for thirty years.
E. American children spent more hours viewing television than studying.

2. Why is television more than just a spare time activity for
children?
A. Their minds are growing, developing and learning. TV
influences children’s attitudes.
B. Television puts their dental health at risk.
C. Exposure to excessive violence.
D. Young children don’t distinguish between commercials and programs.
E. They have limited attention spans, low tolerance for frustration, and a lack of creative imagination.

3. How many hours “, week is the TV set on in the standard U.S. household?
A. 25 hours
B. 22000 hours
C. 35000 hours
D. 43 hours
E. more than 50 hours

Thirty-five hundred years ago, an incredible explosion blew
apart an island and completely destroyed a civilization called
Atlantis. Where was Atlantis? What kind of people lived there? Why and how was it destroyed? No one knows the answers to these questions, but there have been hundreds of guesses and theories.
The Greek philosopher Plato (approximately 427 to 347 B.C.) is the primary source for the legend of Atlantis. His description of the “lost continent” still excites the modern mind. Plato’s Atlantis was a kind of paradise – a vast island “larger than Libya and Asia put together” – with magnificent mountain ranges, green plains that were full of every variety of animal, and luxuriant gardens where the fruit was “fair and wondrous and in infinite abundance.” The earth was rich with precious metals, especially the one prized most highly by the ancients, orichalc, an alloy of copper, perhaps brass.
The capital of Atlantis was beautifully constructed in white,
black, and red stone. The city was carefully planned – in five
zones built in perfect concentric circles. Each circular zone was built inside a larger one. Plato says that the capital’s canals and its nearby port were “full of vessels and merchants coming from all parts, who … kept up … din and clatter …. night and day.” The city was full of life, activity, and culture.

4. Plato lived ___.
A. 3,500 years ago.
B. roughly 427 to 347 B.C. I
C. 23 centuries ago I
D. in Africa I
E. on a lost continent

5. In accordance with Plato, how large was Atlantis?
A. as large as a continent
B. larger than Libya and Asia put together
C. as large as a vast island
D. None of the above
E. all of the above

6. The fruit on Atlantis was ___.
A. orichalc
B. rich with special metals
C. fair and wondrous and in endless abundance
D. a kind of paradise
E. green

The need for a surgical operation, specially an emergency
operation, almost always comes as a severe shock to the patient and his family. Despite modern advances, most people still have an irrational fear of hospitals and anaesthetics. Patients do not often believe they really need surgery – cutting into a part of the body as opposed to treatment with drugs. In the early years of this century there was little specialisation in surgery. A good surgeon was capable of performing almost every operation that had been devised up to that time. Today the situation is different. Operations are now being carried out that were riot even dreamed of fifty years ago. The heart can be safely opened and its valves repaired. Clogged blood vessels can be cleaned out, and broken ones mended or replaced. A lung, the whole stomach, or even part of the brain can be removed and still permit the patient to live a comfortable and satisfactory life. However, not every surgeon wants to, or is qualified to carry out every type of modern operation.

7. Many people are afraid of being operated on ___
A. unless it is an emergency operation.
B. in spite of improvements in modern surgery.
C. because they are afraid of the surgeries.
D. because they don’t believe modem surgery.
E. because they are afraid of anaesthetics.

8. Surgeons in the early years of this century, compared with contemporary ones, ___
A. were more trusted by their patients.
B. were younger than today’s surgeons.
C. had less to learn about surgery.
D. had more to learn about surgery.
E. were obliged to specialize more than their predecessors.

9. Open heart surgery has been probable ___
A. since the invention of valves.
B. since the beginning of this century.
C. only in the last fifty years.
D. for ages.
E. since the invention of clogged blood vessels.

The unfavourable effects of cigarette smoking on the heart have frequently been described, but the exact source for these effects has not been clarified. Some investigators believe nicotine to be the culprit, and there has been some experimental work in animals indicating that large doses of nicotine in conjunction with cholesterol feeding and vitamin D could produce a disease of the arteries resembling that seen in humans. An alternative explanation has been offered by other scientists who have pointed to the possible role of carbon monoxide being inhaled with the cigarette smoke.

10. It is emphasized in the passage that nicotine ___.
A. is considered by some to be one of the reasons why smoking has
an adverse effect on the heart
B. is the only harmful factor in relation to smoking
C. affects animals more seriously than humans
D. has been established as more dangerous than carbon monoxide for smokers
E. has an adverse effect only upon the arteries

11. In accordance with the passage, studies into the adverse effects of smoking ___.
A. have ruled out any relationship between smoking and
cholesterol levels in humans
B. have not been able to establish for certain whether or not
carbon monoxide could be a factor
C. have so far not raised any controversial opinions
D. have shown that vitamin D reduces nicotine in the body
E. indicate that nicotine and carbon monoxide may be only minor factors

12. The main concern of the passage is to ___.
A. describe certain experiments on animals relating to the effects of carbon monoxide
B. emphasize the role nicotine and vitamin D play in heart
diseases
C. demonstrate that the adverse effects of smoking on the heart are still under debate
D. compare the effects on the heart of nicotine and carbon
monoxide
E. give an account of the research work concerning animal
disease

Agriculture remains the most fundamental area to development, here it seems the most intractable problems of resistance to change exist. One may argue that scientific training in agriculture by itself is unlikely to have any marked impact on agricultural output. Any attempt at vocational training in agriculture presupposes that a meaningful structure of incentive exists for the individual farmer to increase his output, improve his techniques and expand his range of activities. Without such incentives and opportunities, agricultural education can have little impact.

13. The writer is of the opinion that improvements in the field of agriculture ___.
A. cannot be achieved through vocational training
B. can easily be realized
C. have already led to good results
D. are absolutely vital for productivity
E. have largely been confined to technology

14. We can infer from the passage that the agricultural
community ___,
A. tends to disregard the problems of the individual farmer
B. is eager for more vocational training
C. is full aware of the long-term benefits of scientific training
D. has already begun to benefit from the improved techniques
E. is not the one that welcomes change,

15. The writer concludes that vocational training in agriculture
A. will be an effective way of eliminating resistance to change in society
B. will provide farmers with a wide range of opportunities
C. will be fertile unless it’s backed up with various incentives
D. is regarded as a priority for social development
E. as often been underestimated by various authorities

Some decades ago there was hardly such a subject as the economics of education. Today it is one of the most quickly growing branches of economics. Together with health economics it makes up the core of human resources, a field of inquiry which in the last few years has been silently revolutionizing such traditional subjects as growth economics, labour economics, international trade, and public finance; consequently, the economics of education with its concept of human investment has rapidly transformed large areas of orthodox economics.

16. The writer implies that the term the economics of education………..
A. has only come into use in very recent years
B. has for decades been under discussion among economists
C. is of little significance in orthodox economics
D. has only been accepted in educational circles
E. is gradually disappearing from economic writings

17. In accordance with the passage, the economics of education ___.
A. is not connected in anyway with investment in man
B. B. relates to a very narrow sphere of human activity
C. has had no impact whatever or other areas of orthodox
economics
D. has today come into the forefront of economic thinking
E. is one of the earliest branches of general economics

18. The writer suggests that the earlier branches of economics ___.
A. have grown steadily in impotence
B. have been substantially modified through the introduction of
the economic of human resources
C. have been virtually unaffected by health economics or the
economic of human resources
D. gave great importance to the idea of human investment
E. constituted the essence of the economics of human resources

Tigers grow to lengths of ten feet or more and can be bigger than the largest lion. They have huge strength. They clutch their prey to them holding on with their claws, and depend on the crushing bite of their powerful jaws to end the struggle. They swim very well and can often be seen splashing about in water on very hot days since they apparently suffer from the heat. When the air is chilly, however, they avoid wet or damp vegetation. They can climb but do not approach the leopard’s ability in this. They can negotiate treacherous rocky areas but generally prefer to
stay on level ground. They are not as well equipped with senses as one might expect. They apparently depend on their hearing while hunting. Their eyesight is not particularly good, and they seem unable to spot their prey until it moves.

19. It is implied in the passage that tigers ___.
A. rely on their huge claws alone to catch and kill their prey.
B. are the most skilful climbers of all wild animals.
C. are sensitive to significant variations in temperature.
D. closely resemble lions as regards size, speed and strength.
E. rely heavily upon their eyesight in locating and catching prey.

20. As is pointed out in the passage, a flat terrain ____.
A. is usually the favoured habitat of the tiger.
B. rather than rocky cliffs gives tigers better opportunities for hiding.
C. provides camouflage for leopards.
D. is usually wet, so tigers prefer higher levels.
E. usually has thicker vegetation which shelters more prey.

21. From the passage we infer that contrary to what is generally thought, ___.
A. once a prey starts to move a tiger can rarely catch it.
B. hearing is the least developed sense of the tiger
C. the leopards hunting ability is far behind that of the tiger.
D. rocky areas are invariably avoided by all wild animals.
E. the tiger’s senses are not particularly well developed.

Scientists have long sought ways to define and measure human intelligence. And while theorists of intelligence have grown more sophisticated since the 1800s when some believed mental ability were determined by the size of the person’s head. Researchers still do not agree about certain fundamental principles of human thought. They hence continue to debate such basic questions as whether heredity or the environment is more important in forming intelligence.

22. As we infer from the passage, the age-old controversy about whether intelligence depends upon heredity or the environment…………
A. is now being ignored as it is seen to be fruitless.
B. was finally reached in area 1800.
C. has only recently become a subject for serious research.
D. does not seem to have ceased yet.
E. was more sophisticated in the 19th century than it is today.

23. In accordance with the passage, in the early nineteenth century, some people held the view that a person’s mental capacity ___.
A. could never be changed.
B. depended on the head size:
C. was purely hereditary.
D. was completely shaped by the environment.
E. fundamental to his character.

24. One may infer from the passage that a full understanding of the nature and the capacity of human intelligence ___.
A. can only be achieved by exceptionally sophisticated minds .
B. has finally been achieved by modern scientists .
C. is sure to be realized within the next few years .
D. is not likely to be achieved in the near future.
E. will emerge through theoretical rather than environmental
structures.

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