Paragraf Tamamlama Test 11
| 1) . ____. People cannot live without food to eat and oxygen to breathe. When it is cold, they need heat, clothes, and places to live. The environment provides these needs. People use the land and oceans for food. The atmosphere, which is the air around the earth, contains oxygen. Energy for heat comes from petroleum, trees, or the sun.
A) Hundreds of years ago, the environment supplied food, heat and housing for everyone.
B) The Western world changed from an agricultural world to an industrial world,
C) Pollution is a harmful change that disturbs the balance of nature,
D) Human beings reed food, water, and air, which are all necessary for survival,
E) Industry is changing the environment quickly.
2) . People and industry need energy to do work. People cannot live without some kind of energy. Petroleum, which is a fossil fuel, is an important source. Oil and other fossil fuels come from deep in the earth. Millions of years ago, plants and animals lived on the earth. They died and changed their form. Oil comes from these plants and animals. The world is using
3) . One type of solar collector is not very expensive. It is put on the roof of a building. It is usually put on the sunny side of the roof. _____. The unit has a flat or level surface. The surface is black because black collects more heat from the sun. Inside, there are pipes with water. The top is a piece of glass. The sun shines through the glass and air inside. It heats the water that is also inside. A pump, a machine to move the water, starts when the water is warm enough. Then hot water goes into a storage tank. This thank stores or keeps the hot water. Then there is hot water to use for washing clothes or taking baths and showers.
4) . Paper, which is expensive to buy, can also be recycled. Many peoplecollect old newspapers and take them to recycling centres where the paper is cut up. ______. Although trees, which are a source of paper, are a renewable resource, it is a good idea to recycle paper because trees grow slowly. People can conserve resources if they recycle materials, such as aluminium, glass and newspapers, but also it is easy.
5) . New technology increases crop production. However, agricultural experts need to think about the ways that people in different areas live. The local people need to help plan new agricultural projects for their areas. _______. With co-operation, working together, the countries of the earth
6) . Deserts do not all look alike because they differ in the formation of the land and the vegetation. Some deserts are flat while others have hills and mountains. Some are sand with almost no vegetation, and others are rocky with many plants on them. ___.
7) . Irrigation is used today not only in arid regions of the earth but also in areas where there is rainfall. It is used in wet regions, such as Western Europe, when there is not enough rain. In areas that have wet and dry seasons, such as Spain, irrigation is used in the dry season so that farmers can grow another crop. ___. This irrigated land produces much of the
8) . Marine biologists agree that with the present technology the oceans probably cannot solve the world’s food shortage. Present methods of fishing are inefficient because it costs too much money to collect the fish. Also, fishermen want to catch only certain kinds of fish that people like to eat. ___. With efficient fishing methods, experts estimate that they could supply a human’s daily requirement of protein for one cent.
9) . Why do companies spend a lot of money on advertising? ____. Therefore, they try to persuade people to buy their products by advertising, which is part of the competition for customers. Second, companies, especially large international businesses, also want a good reputation. They need their customers’ repeated business as well as their respect.
10) . Advertising is big business. Ad companies buy Time on radio and TV to sell their products or services. _____. Most of the cost of magazines and newspapers is also paid for by advertising. The advertising industry employs actors, musicians, artists, writers, photographers, and many other kinds of workers.
11) . Most fish live near the surface of the ocean. They live in the photic layer of water where the sunlight reaches. Its average depth is 50 meters, and its average food production per acre is about the same as on land. As on the land, some areas produce much more than others. ___. Up welling occurs when the deep layers of water that contain rich nutrients for the fish
12) . Corporations are another kind of business. They are owned by a group of people. These people all own scares, or parts of the business. Then these people become shareholders of the corporation. Each shareholder gets part of the profit in a dividend. _____, but managers run the corporation from day to day and make most of the corporate decisions. These corporations usually have a president and several vice-presidents. Some corporations are small, and others are very large, such as Volkswagen, IBM, and General Motors.
13) . Other experts are developing new land for agriculture in deserts. In fact, there is a lot of research now in arid land management. Since one-third of the earth is dry, this research will open more land for agriculture. Water management is one part of arid land studies. Some agricultural experts are developing new methods of irrigation to bring water to crops. ____. Food resources from the ocean will become more and more useful, but experts need to develop new technology to take food from the ocean.
14) . ___. Although they are often called underground rivers, these formations are not like surface rivers. The water accumulates in one area underground. An aquifer contains enough water so that it can be easily pumped out for use.
15) . Up until now, the computer has been used most often in business, where it was first used for accounting. This is still its most common use. The computer can do inventory for business. That is, it can list and remember the number of products that the business buys and sells. It can also calculate the average cost of each inventory item and the total value of the products in the store. It can tell the businessmen when they need to buy more. ___. It can count the number of hours that employees worked,calculate their salaries, and make the checks to pay them. Management uses it to prepare business reports and to make decisions. It can predict the future of the business so the management can use the information when it has to make important decisions.
16) . Most drugs are poisons in one way or another. Almost all drugs are dangerous when people take too much of them. For example, aspirin, which kills pain, is usually beneficial. ___. Too many sleeping pills cause death too. When they are sick, people sometimes begin to take many drugs. They may take many different kinds of drugs, or they may take too much of one kind of drug. Both kinds of drug use are dangerous. Doctors and patients must be careful of the number of drugs that they use.
17) . These small computers were made possible with the development of microcircuits and silicon chips. These are used in the microprocessor, which is the basic component of the personal computer. It contains the CPU (Central Processing Unit) and the main memory. The memory, measured in thousands of characters called bytes, is usually quite small in
18) . Many large companies employ both industrial doctors and safety engineers to protect workers from accidents and illness on the job. They do this in three ways. First, doctors study the workers and their diseases. They know that certain groups of workers often have the same diseases. At the same Time, safety engineers study accidents and their causes. Second, doctors and safety engineers work together to change the machines or the job because they want to prevent more accidents or illnesses. ___. They teach the workers about safety on the job. Education is necessary for prevention.
19) . Skin and cornea transplants are very common and very successful. Surgeons have performed skin transplants for hundreds of years. In 600 BC, Hindu surgeons in India were probably the first surgeons to transplant skin. ___, The surgeon usually uses the patient’s own skin. Skin from other people often does not help. Many blind patients can see again because of cornea transplants. The cornea is the clear, outer cover of the eye. Some kinds of blindness occur when the cornea becomes cloudy. A cornea transplant provides a new, clear cornea.
20) . ____. They may have good effects or bad effects. Doctors and healers, have used them to cure disease and to kill pain for many hundreds of years. In the twentieth century, doctors have found many natural drugs. One of these is penicillin, which is an antibiotic. Natural drugs come from plants and animals. Scientists have studied the natural drugs and learned to make synthetic drugs in the laboratory similar to the natural drugs.
21) . Gases in mines are also very dangerous. Methane and carbon monoxide are the most dangerous. Too much methane may cause a violent explosion. Carbon monoxide is also a poisonous gas. Methane and carbon monoxide have no smell, so miners do not know when the gases are in the mine. If there is too much of a poisonous gas in the mine, the miners die. They sometimes take a small bird into the mine with them. ___. Then the miners know that they must leave the mine quickly. Because of the poisonous gases, it is important to bring fresh air into the mine.
22) . Tourism has grown so quickly during the last quarter of a century that ___. And it is only during the 1980’s that the problems of poor or non- existent planning have been seen and tackled.
23) . There are 5 oceans in the world. The Arctic Ocean is the shallowest with an average depth of on 990 meters. ___. Another thing is that it was the last ocean to be explored.
24) . All parents have to solve the problems of freedom and discipline. The younger the child, the more readily the mother gives in to his demands to avoid disappointing him. ___. An example of this is the young child’s need to play with mud, sand and water. A child must be allowed to enjoy this “messy” but tactile stage of discovery before he is ready to go on to
25) . There is no such thing as a memory in the sense of some thing that can be seen, touched or weighed. Memory is an abstraction referring to a set of skills rather than to an object. _____. There are a number of different ways in which a person may have a “good” memory.
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