|[AKIN] 1) . It seems that in most countries, the categorizing of the handicapped is undergoing a change, in particular the idea of mental handicap is being recognized. The case of autistic children is an example of this.[/AKIN]
A) It is now clear that these children can be taught.
B) On the contrary, the handicapped can get effective education in regular classrooms.
C) As far as the authorities concerned, more attention should be given to budgetary restrictions.
D) Judging them from the data gathered recently throughout the world the handicapped are not receiving the care they actually need.
E) In fact, among the reforms proposed by the Ministry is. the reform of general education.2) . In this age crime has become an everyday event, and this has had an effect on our reading. Readers no longer look for escape when they when they pick up a crime novel. ______. That is, they want to learn something about the real world, and about those, good and bad, who inhabit it.
A) Crime novelists cannot be dismissed simply because the incidents they describe are inherently more interesting than those in other kinds.
B) Today the crime novel, in all its forms, proceeds more surely and satisfactorily from well-established facts.
C) Most novelists see crime as a fascinating topic they can creatively write about.
D) They read it for the same reason they read novels of any other kind.
E) A great majority of readers regard incidents in a crime novel as more fantasy.
3) . Psychology refers to the human “psyche”. ______. But how does one go about studying the mind scientifically? Science implies measurement. How does one measure something which can neither be seen or heard nor touched?
A) This is why psychology has come to be known as the study of behaviour.
B) It is not the only discipline that is concerned with a systematic study of behaviour.
C) All of these disciplines are rightly regarded as behavioural sciences.
D) Sociology on the other hand, is devoted in largest part to the nature and development of human society and community life.
E) Gradually it came to mean the study of the “mind”, and still, in part, retains that meaning.
4) . ______. Size alone has clearly nothing to do with the distinction,there are some huge colleges and some small universities. Is the difference to be found in breadth or scope of instructional offerings? Not according to the late Hastings Rashdall, whose three-volume University of Europe in the Middle Ages is a classic in the field.
A) Public institutions are in a different situation.
B) The content and structure of general education need to be improved.
C) First, let us clarify the terms college and university.
D) In most countries colleges has come to the label for a higher institution of limited or special scope.
E) A number of colleges and universities have experimented with curricular structures.
5) . For centuries, scientist and philosophers speculated on the structure of the universe and the existence of galaxies outside our own. But until the twentieth century, they where able to do no more than speculate. __________. Using giant telescopes, ultraviolet and infrared interments and high-speed computers, they are studying the formation of galaxies for further insights into the nature of the cosmos.
A) Meanwhile, the study of other galaxies has led to an extraordinary insight into the possible structure of the universe.
B) We now know, of course, that the universe is designed on a scale for more grand.
C) After decades of speculation, in fact we have started to penetrate to the very centre to our own galaxy.
D) Now, however scientists have determined that the universe is made up of millions of galaxies.
E) They have located regions that are very disturbed, with hot, turbulent gases swirling around us they rotate about the centre.
6) . Probably no artist of the Renaissance and succeeding ages has drawn as much attention as Michelangelo. He became a myth even in his lifetime. Now a vast amount of source materials about him has been collected, including letters, poems, and contracts. _______ .
A) For him manual execution was a vital component of the creative process and on occasion, seemed part of the process of design it- self.
B) Nevertheless, modern history of art has formed an image of the artist that is much nearer to historical truth than those presented by his first biographers.
C) Precisely for the reason, the early history of art is filled with distorted material which is mostly mere speculation.
D) Indeed, one of the most striking peculiarities of his work is the great number of pieces that were left unfinished.
E) Thus the artist’s character, his daily habits, and his working methods are known to us.
7) . Tourism has grown so quickly during the previous “quarter of a century that ___. And it is only during the 1980’s that the problems of poor or nonexistent planning have been seen and tackled.
A) is the change in tradition life styles that alarms many anthropologists.
B) leave behind their rural homes and traditional life-style.
C) tourism as it developed in the 60’s and 70’s is self-destructive.
D) destroys the very things tourists come for.
E) it has become a problem in both industrialized and developing countries.
8) . There are 5 oceans in the world. The Arctic Ocean is the
shallowest with an average depth of on 990 meters. ___.
Another thing is that it was the last ocean to be explored.
A) This is the only ocean which is almost completely unsurrounded by land.
B) But 20% of the world’s oil pollution takes place in it.
C) And yet it covers the north Pole
D) Most people do not know where it is.
E) And lots of different kinds of fish live there.
9) . All parents have to solve the problems of freedom and discipline.The younger the child, the more readily the mother gives in to his demands to prevent disappointing him. ___. An example of this is the young child’s need to play with mud, sand and water. A child must be allowed to enjoy this “mossy” but tactile stage of discovery before he is ready to go on to the less physical pleasures of toys and books.
A) Similarly, throughout life, each stage depends on the satisfactory completion of the one before,
B) She knows that if his energies are not given an outlet, her child’s continuing development may be warped.
C) Early upbringing in the home is naturally affected both by the cultural pattern of the community and by the parents’ capabilities and their aims.
D) Intelligent parents, however, realize that the particular setting of each family is unique, and there can be no rigid general rules.
E) Parents can ascertain what is normal in physical, mental and social development by referring to some of the many books based on scientific knowledge in these areas.
10) . There is no such thing as a memory in the sense of some thing that can be seen, touched or weighed. Memory is an abstraction referring to a set of skills rather than to an object. ___. There are a number of different ways in which a person can have a “good” memory.
A) Memory consists of at least two different processes
B) One measure of memory is recall.
C) Some material may be remembered in visual form.
D) There are several explanations of why we forget.
E) Neither is there a single standard for judging a good or poor memory.
11) . _____. They have a preference to nest in a large hollow in a tree or even to occupy the deserted nest of a hawk or crow. These structures are large and rough, built of sticks and bark and lined with leaves and feathers. Sometimes owls nest on a rocky ledge, or even on bare ground.
A) Owls are poor home builders.
B) It takes a long time to raise a family of owlets.
C) The mother lays two or three eggs.
D) The mother stoically settles herself on the nest.
E) The parent birds are weary of family life by November and drive the young owls away to establish hunting ranges of their own.
12) . We all know that learning is significant. ___? A dictionary might tell you that learning is acquiring knowledge through experience and study. A teacher might tell you that it is memorizing what he wants you to know for an examination. Your boss might tell you that it is mastery of the task you are hired to do. A psychologist might tell you that it is a relatively permanent change in behaviour due to past experience. Obviously, learning takes place in many ways and forms.
A) How is it managed
B) What exactly do you mean
C) Yet can one depend on it
D) But what exactly is it
E) Do you think it can be mastered
13) . Someone once said that there are three sides to every questionable issue: your side, my side, and the right side. ___. For instance,the reactions to the issue of abortion are usually divided into two basic viewpoints: for or against. But the matter is not that simple.Other questions begin to surface, which turn the issue into a complex one and make it necessary for us to look at it from many sides.
A) Unknowingly people become conditioned to speak out of prejudice
B) In truth, there my be many sides, depending upon the issue instead
C) As we mature, our beliefs are also shaped both directly and indirectly by the media
D) Consequently our thinking process becomes evaluated by other’s opinions.
E) Even when we think we are acting as individuals by rejecting the ideas of one group, we are often just accepting the ideas of another.
14) . Some sociologists are concerned that America is no longer “a melting pot,” but “a salad bowl.” Different from the most earlier immigrants who were willing to learn English and wanted to “melt” –into American life, many of today’s immigrants do not see the need_____? How will all this affect American’s future?
A) Why did most European immigrants settle in the cities rather than on farms
B) What was city life like for most immigrants
C) What changes can we expect in the make-up of American’s population by the year 2000
D) What hardships did the early immigrants face when they arrived in America.
E) How far back can an American trace his roots
15) . ___. The faltering economy they inherited was now under
additional pressure from those newly unemployed, including the million man army of the former regime. There were critical
shortage of foreign exchange and gold, much of which had been stolen in the final days of the war. There were also at least two million new refugees, almost 10% of the population. Virtually, the country was in a state of total bankruptcy.
A) The end of the war in Vietnam brought massive problems to the new leaders of the country.
B) In the first place, all industry was nationalized by the new Vietnam government
C) One unexpected problem facing the new government has continuing military activity
D) One solution to the urban problems facing Vietnam was to get people to return to the countryside.
E) In their first months in power Vietnam’s new leaders succeeded in persuading hundreds of thousands of people to move back to their farms.
16) . Getting information on a possible adversary or adversaries is only
the start of intelligence process. The raw material, once in hand, must be drawn together, analyzed, correlated, and evaluated before it becomes useful knowledge. ___. From this appraisal, which points to his most probable course of action, the target state can chart a course of action best designed to meet the developing situation.
A) The ethics of secret intelligence operations have long been debated
B) At this stage there emerges an estimate of the adversary’s intentions and of his ability to achieve them.
C) But the richest source is usually the secret agent, who is always a highly skilled and well-trained professional.
D) Intelligence findings are, therefore, usually classified and limited in circulation
E) In recent decades technology has enormously lengthened the reach and sharpened the penetration of intelligence.
17) . In the 1900s cancer was almost always fatal; by the 1930s one out of five cancer patients was saved; by 1975 treatment was successful in
one out of every three cancer patients . ___.
A) New evidence suggests that the highest risk for lung cancer occurs in asbestos workers who smoke.
B) Indeed every one knows that cancer refers to a group of over 100 different diseases
C) Today scientists and physicians believe that half of all cancer patients can be saved if present knowledge is applied promptly in every case.
D) Rehabilitation of the cancer patient has become an important new concern for social workers.
E) The aim of cancer rehabilitation is to help the patient lead as normal a life as possible.
18) . The science of computers and the technology of their use are broad and complex subjects. ……… . As a result, as in other similar fields so in computer sciences, there is a great variety of terminology and jargon.
A) Even children in primary schools now learn to use computers.
B) Obviously there are several types of computers which would serve this particular purpose adequately.
C) The languages the computer understands are easily under stock by even ordinary people.
D) One recent development is that computers are getting smaller and smaller
E) Moreover the rapid rate of change in this field has contributed still further to this complexity
19) . ………. The feudal lords in England had always run their own law courts and profited by the fines paid by those brought to court. But King John took many cases out of their courts and tried them in his own, taking the money for himself.
A) King John all the time had the full support of the feudal lords
B) The administration of justice in Medieval England was completely centralized
C) King John, who lived in the 13th century, was unpopular mainly because he was greedy.
D) Medieval economy in England was based on agriculture.
E) The history of the British Parliament goes back to the signing of Magna Carta
20) . The main power of the media lies in the fact that it can shape what we know about the world and can be a main source of ideas and opinions. ……… . This power is greater if we consider all the various media together, not just one, such as the Press.
A) The most influential media is obviously television
B) Indeed it can influence the way we think and act more than we realize
C) Journalists are jealous of the power of television
D) In recent decades the main concern of the media has been Democracy.
E) Most governments neglect the influence of the media on society
21) . All considered, the United States has the world’s most effective overall economy. ……… . This increase in efficiency has in part been made possible by the fact that this sector is less heavily unionized than the manufacturing sector.
A) Unfortunately many American car manufacturers have lost a sizable share of the world market.
B) In fact Japan has become one of the biggest exporters of high-tech goods.
C) Many American steel plants have entered a period of recession
D) Europe, however, has been making itself more efficient in the services industry
E) Competition from Germany is a threat both to Japan and the US.
22) . When Mikhail Gorbachew came to power in 1985, the Soviet Union had the only advanced economy that had not joined the computer age. As a result of this Soviet-manufactured products found no customers in world markets. He realized that, to modernize the country, it was essential to permit the free exchange of scientific and technological ideas ……….
A) He played a constructive role in the reduction of weapons of mass destruction.
B) The average income, over the last five years, has dropped considerably.
C) The process of industrialization, therefore, came to a halt.
D) Any radical political change would noticeably have encountered fierce opposition.
E) This, indeed, was the policy he followed while he was in power.
23) . The most important idea of the 19th century was that everyone had the right to personal freedom, which was the basis of capitalism. This idea had spread widely through Adam Smith’s book Wealth of Nations written in the 18th century. ……… . Fewer laws, they claimed, meant more freedom, and freedom for individuals would lead to happiness for the greatest number of people.
A) The British government at this time was reluctant to make use of his ideas
B) The result was several laws were passed to prevent people carrying guns
C) Obviously Adam Smith was well informed about working conditions in the factories
D) After Adam Smith, several capitalist economists argued that governments should not interfere in trade and industry at all
E) By the turn of the 20th century, capitalism had grown less popular outside England.
24) . What is soul? From Plato onwards, many answers have been given to this question, but no one answer has ever been found to be sufficient. ……… Presumably we must mean something by it.
A) His definition, quite understandably, soon returned to favour.
B) Even so, the word is still in constant use.
C) At a still later period soul and character were equated.
D) If there had been further developments in this line, they may have proved significant.
E) The new step would then have been to differentiate between soul and body.
25) . The Japanese have a pure aesthetic sense; they beautify, adorn and decorate everything they touch. …… It is cut into an artistic shape and given a colour scheme with carefully placed pieces of tomato and herbs.
A) Presumably they get a great deal of satisfaction out of such elegant displays.
B) The art of flower arrangement is particularly well developed in Japan.
C) Many of these arrangement consist of merely two or three flowers and a spring of green.
D) Naturally this is especially true of the women of that country.
E) A sandwich in Japan is not a sandwich. It is a work of art, designed to appeal not just to the appetite but also to the eye.