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Paragraf Tamamlama Test 7


1) . __________ The midnight sun is due to the fact that the plane of the earth’s equator is skewed about 231/2° to the plane of the ecliptic. Thus, at the summer solstice (about June 22), the sun is stilt visible on the horizon at midnight at all points along the Arctic Circle, 231/2° of latitude from the North Pole. At points north of the Arctic Circle, the midnight sun is visible for longer than one day, the North Pole having a full six months of continuous sun from the vernal equinox (about March 21) to the autumnal equinox (about September 23). In the south Polar Regions the midnight sun is visible along the Antarctic Circle at the winter solstice (about December 22) and south of the Antarctic Circle for longer periods.
A) Midnight sun cannot be observed from the regions located in the southern hemisphere.
B) Equator line is considered as one of the most suitable places to observe the midnight sun.
C) Midnight sun is phenomenon in which the sun remains visible in the sky continuously for 24 hours or longer, occurring only in the Polar, Regions.
D) Midnight sun is natural phenomenon that has never concerned the attention of the scientific circle so far.
E) Life for the local people living in the Arctic Circle is extremely challenging.

2) . Solar cell is a semiconductor devised to alter light to electric current. It is a particularly constructed diode, usually made of silicon crystal. When light strikes the exposed active surface, it knocks electrons loose from their sites in the crystal. Some of the electrons have sufficient energy to cross the diode junction. ________.Since the current obtained from these devices is small and the voltage is low, they must be connected in large series-parallel arrays if useful amounts of energy are to be converted.
A) As global warming accelerates and our energy demands continue to rise, we have to adopt cleaner, more sustainable sources of energy.
B) Having done so, they cannot return to positions on the other side of the junction without passing through an external circuit.
C) If we covered a small fraction of the Sahara desert with photovoltaic, we could generate all the world’s electricity requirements.
D) The sun bathes the earth in an incredible amount of energy – in a day, enough arrives to power the whole world for several years.
E) The 21st Century must be the solar century.

3) . Seasonal migrations happen in many species of insects, birds, marine mammals, and large herbivorous mammals. ________ Many birds and a few bats of cold and temperate regions migrate to warmer areas during the winter. Herbivores of cold regions, such as wapiti, caribou, and moose, have summer and winter ranges; many herbivores of warm regions, such as the African antelopes, migrate seasonally to avoid drought. These migrations may involve a change of latitude, of altitude, or both.
A) Migrations of these animals are closely monitored by the ornithologists.
B) These migrations often provide the animals with more favourable conditions of temperature, food, or water.
C) During the seasonal migrations, birds’ nutritional attitudes vary according to the geographical area they fly over.
D) In the past, people founded observatories, especially in ancient Aztec civilization, tried to track the route of the migrations.
E) The findings obtained from studies regarding seasonal migrations led the innovation of navigational devices.

4) . ________ The probability that stellar navigation is used has been strengthened by experiments in planetariums indicating that birds navigate at least in part by the stars. Night-migrating birds are sometimes perplexed in prolonged heavy fog. Day-flying birds navigate by the sun and also make some use of geographic features, particularly of shorelines. It has long been proposed that birds perceive the direction of the earth’s magnetic field and use it for navigation, but experimental evidence for that hypothesis is inconclusive.
A) Stellar navigation had been a technique utilized by the sailors before the invention of compass.
B) Migratory birds are believed to use the stars, sun, and geographic features as guides.
C) Ancient sailors used to make use of the stellar navigation techniques prior to the innovation of modem navigational devices.
D) Experiments carried out in planetariums revealed that the accuracy in course-plotting could only be achieved by stellar navigation techniques.
E) Night-migrating birds have always been a subject of scientific

5) . Millennium bug is a plan flaw in the hardware or software of a computer that causes erroneous results when working with dates beyond Dec. 31, 1999. In the 1960s and 70s programmers who designed computer systems dropped the first two digits of a year when storing or processing dates to save what then was expensive and limited memory; such a system records the year 2000 as 00 and cannot distinguish it from 1900. In sorting, comparison, and arithmetic operations, the year 2000 would be treated as if it were equivalent to 0 rather than 100, causing incorrect results. The algorithm used to calculate leap years may also be invalid, creating an additional problem in calculating the correct date after Feb. 28, 2000.________
A) The network systems of large companies have sophisticated intranets that enable protection against malicious attacks by hackers.
B) Computer manufacturer giants like IBM, Compaq, and Apple designed protective shields against such viruses to protect the network systems.
C) Such viruses are the real troublemakers for international companies using complicated networks.
D) Because their designers expected such computer systems to be replaced before the beginning of the year 2000, using a two-digit date was not regarded as a problem.
E) In 2001, thousands of personal computers was infected by the virus called Red Code virus.

6) . Empiricism is a philosophical doctrine that all knowledge is derived from experience. For most empiricists, experience includes inner experience-reflection upon the mind and its operations-as well as sense perception. This position is opposed to rationalism in that it denies the existence of innate ideas. ______ Therefore, knowledge of the physical world can be nothing more than a generalization from particular instances and can never reach more than a high degree of probability.
A) According to the empiricist, all ideas are derived from experience.
B) Modem empiricism has been conditioned in large part by two dogmas.
C) The Aristotelian notion of empiricism was the forerunner, no doubt, of the modem notion of intension or meaning.
D) This is an account of cognitive synonymy not of linguistic forms generally, but of statements.
E) Empiricists there are who would boggle at such prodigality inquiry in astronomy.

7) . Perspiration is the fluid secreted by the sweat glands of mammalian skin and containing water, salts, and waste products of body metabolism such as urea. The dissolved solid content of sweat is only one eighth that of an equal volume of urine, the body’s main vehicle of salt excretion. However, excessive sweating may produce severe salt loss. Human sweat glands are of two types, eccrine and apocrine. The eccrine glands, found everywhere on the body surface, are vital to the regulation of body temperature. Evaporation of the sweat secreted by the eccrines cools the body, dissipating the heat generated by metabolic processes.
A) On the other hand, dogs perspire from their tongues.
B) Anti-perspire products might be dangerous for woman expecting baby.
C) The release of such sweat is usually imperceptible; yet even in cool weather an individual will lose from 1 pt to 3 qt of fluid per day.
D) Therefore, stopping perspiration is considered as a sign of disease.
E) An average person must consume 2 litres of water.

8) . Petra is an antique rock city in present-day Jordan. ________.It was for many centuries the focal point of a vast caravan trade but declined with the rise of Palmyra. However, it remained a religious centre of Arabia. Under the Romans in the 2d and 3d century, it was included in the province of Arabia Petraea. An early seat of Christianity, it was occupied by the Muslims in the 7th century and in the 12th century was captured by the Crusaders, who built a citadel there. Petra was unidentified to the Western world until its ruins were visited by Johann Burckhardt in 1812.
A) It was early occupied by the Edomites and by the Nabataeans, who had their capital there from the 4th century B.C. until the Roman occupation in A.D. 106.
B) Petra is a major tourist Mecca in present day Jordan.
C) It takes seven hours car ride from Irbid to Petra, which is situated among the mountains.
D) After his visit to Petra, Johann Burckhardt converted to Islamic faith.
E) Petra is a sacred location for many religions.

9) . Petroleum has been known during historical time. Native Americans used it in magic and medication and in making paints. Pioneers bought it from the Native Americans for medicinal use and called it Seneca oil and Genesee oil. In Europe it was scooped from streams or holes in the ground, and in the early 19th century small quantities were made from shale. In 1815 several streets in Prague were lighted with petroleum lamps.
A) Petroleum engineers are responsible for exploring and drilling for oil and gas.
B) Scientists in the area of organic chemistry have been striving for producing syntactic oil for years.
C) The major economic source of many of Mid-East countries is petroleum.
D) It was used in mortar, for coating walls and boat hulls, and as a fire weapon in defensive warfare.
E) British Petroleum is the leading oil company in the world.

10) . Potential power is the capability for doing work that a body possesses because of its position or condition. For example, a stone resting on the edge of a cliff has potential energy due to its position in the earth’s gravitational field. ________ The stone’s potential energy is equal to its weight times the distance it can fall. A charge in an electric field also has potential energy because of its position; a stretched spring has potential energy because of its condition.
A) Everything you observe moving about has kinetic energy.
B) This apparatus will drop a mass from different heights.
C) Other examples of systems having potential energy include a stretched rubber band, and a pair of magnets held together so that the like poles are touching.
D) Nuclei in atoms have potential energy that is transformed into more useful forms of energy in nuclear power plants
E) If it falls, the force of gravity will act on it until it strikes the ground.

11) . _________ Reimbursement is made from a fund to which many individuals exposed to the same risk have contributed certain specified amounts, called premiums. Payment for an individual loss divided among many, does not fall heavily upon the actual loser The essence of the contract of insurance, called a policy, is mutuality. The major operations of an insurance company are underwriting, the determination of which risks the insurer can take on; and rate making, the decisions regarding necessary prices for such risks. The underwriter is responsible for guarding against adverse selection, wherein there is excessive coverage of high-risk candidates in proportion to the coverage of low risk candidates.
A) No-fault insurance is a type of automobile liability insurance that tries to cut the cost of insurance that tries to cut the cost of insurance by restricting the legal grounds on which suits arising out of accidents can be brought.
B) Life insurance programs have been widely offered by the insurance companies for many years.
C) Insurance is a device for indemnifying or guaranteeing an individual against loss.
D) Insurance against the damages caused earthquakes has been compulsory for two years in Turkey.
E) Insurance against natural disasters are usually offered by large international companies.

12) . Zoology is a division of biology concerned with the study of animal life. _________Cave art demonstrates the practical and mystical significance animals held for prehistoric man. Early efforts to classify animals were based on physical resemblance, habitat, or economic use. Although Hippocrates and Aristotle did much toward organizing the scientific thought of their times, systematic investigation declined under the Romans and, after Galen’s notable contributions, came to a virtual halt lasting through the Middle Ages. With the Renaissance direct observation of nature revived; landmarks were Vesalius’ anatomy and Harvey’s demonstration of the circulation of blood. The invention of the microscope and the use of experimental techniques expanded zoology as a field and established many of its branches, e.g., cytology and histology.
A) From earliest times animals have been vitally important to man.
B) A job in the field of zoology will require at least a Bachelor of Science in biology or a related field like wildlife biology or zoology.
C) The best part about being a zoologist is that you’re doing something that you really love to do.
D) The pay for a zoologist generally increases with each additional degree.
E) There’s many different jobs that a zoologist can do, from being a lab technician, to a veterinarian, to being an animal caretaker/trainer/breeder, to being a wildlife biologist.

13) . Judo has been an Olympic sport for men since 1964 and for women since 1984. Both fight in eight weight classes. Proficiency in judo is indicated by the colour of a player’s belt; white indicates a beginner, black a master. There is a wide range of colour in between. In 1953 the Amateur Athletic Union recognized judo as a sport and sanctioned annual championships. ________
A) Jujitsu, the unmodified form of judo, has been taught to military and police forces.
B) Numerous schools throughout the world now teach judo.
C) Self-defence techniques were believed to originate in the Far East.
D) Jujitsu is not only a self-defence but also a way of self-discipline technique.
E) Karate world championship was first held in Tokyo in 1970.

14) . The Marxist philosophical way is dialectical materialism, a reversal of the dialectical idealism of Hegel. _________.Through dialectical materialism was developed the fundamental Marxist premise that the history of society is the inexorable “history of class struggle.” According to this premise, a specific class could rule only so long as it best represented the economically productive forces of society; when it became outmoded it would be destroyed and replaced. From this continuing dynamic process a classless society would eventually emerge.
A) “The history of the world, according to Hegel, is none other than the progress of the consciousness of freedom.
B) Hegel lived and worked in what we now know as Germany.
C) Of all the major Western philosophers, Hegel has gained the reputation of being the most impenetrable.
D) Dialectical materialism presumes the primacy of economic determinants in history.
E) In Hegel’s belief, we are free only when we act in accordance with our reason.

15) . Nosebleed happens as the result of local injury or trouble. Most nosebleeds are not serious and occur when one of the small veins of the septum ruptures. ________. A nosebleed may also occur in association with infections, heart failure, hypertension, arteriosclerosis, scurvy, leukemia, hemophilia, and other disorders. Persistent nosebleeds should be brought to the attention of a physician, who can stop the bleeding with vasoconstrictors and topical anesthetics.
A) These will usually stop without treatment or when pressure is applied to the nose.
B) If your nose is gradually becoming blocked, you may have nasal polyps.
C) Anosmia is the medical term for loss of the sense of smell and taste that persists when there is no obvious cause, such as a head cold.
D) If the bleeding has not stopped about twenty minutes after this application, go to your physician.
E) People with this condition may require deeper packing with gauze, hospitalization, and occasionally, surgery.

16) . Official efforts at arms control have made some improvement, but only very gradually. The first resolution (1946) of the General Assembly of the United Nations set up an Atomic Energy Commission to make proposals for the peaceful uses of atomic power and for the removal of weapons of mass demolition. ________. However, the plan was vetoed by the USSR in the Security Council. As the cold war progressed, the commission reached an impasse (1948). With the proliferation of nuclear weapons, concern over the situation became more acute.
A) Atomic bombs annihilated two Japanese cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, during the World War II
B) It is still hard to believe that a single atomic weapon might claim thousands of lives within seconds.
C) The atomic bombs used during the World War Ü were the most destructive weapons ever been used.
D) The commission concentrated debate on the Baruch Plan for an international agency to control atomic power and weapons and passed it.
E) The United Nations Security Council had to ban the production of nuclear weapons.

17) . ________ It is also concerned with analysis of diplomatic reports, newspapers, periodicals, technical publications, commercial statistics, and radio and television broadcasts. In the last fifty years spying activity has been greatly supplemented by technological advances, especially in the areas of radio signal interception and high-altitude photography. Observation with high-technology equipment on the ground or from high-altitude planes and satellites has become an important espionage method. Code making and code breaking have become computerized and very effective. The threat of foreign espionage is used as an excuse for internal suppression and the suspension of civil rights in many countries.
A) From Biblical times to the middle of the twentieth century the lone agent has been the most potent intelligence weapon.
B) Espionage is a part of intelligence activity.
C) The most effective of these were spies who acted, for the most part, without the support of a network and were thus able to avoid being betrayed by confederates.
D) Spies are not to be confused with the common or uncommon criminal.
E) The lust for wealth motivates most spies, from ancient times to the present.

18) . ________ In feudal culture, for example, the capability to read and write was of significance only to the clergy and aristocracy. The first known reference to “literate laymen” did not appear until the end of the 14th cent. Illiteracy was not seen as a problem until after the invention of printing in the 15th cent. The first noteworthy decline in illiteracy came with the Reformation, when translation of the Bible into the vernacular became widespread and Protestant converts were taught to read it.
A) Feudalism is a system of obligations that bound lords and their subjects in Europe during much of the Middle Ages.
B) Throughout most of history most people have been illiterate.
C) Under feudalism, people were born with a permanent position in society.
D) Traditional religious belief was at first threatened with the increase of literacy.
E) Feudalism was a great handicap in front of the human rights.

19) . Proponents of organic food state that it is more nourishing, safer to eat, and usually tastes better because it contains no synthetically compounded fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, hormones, medicated feed, or antibiotics or chemicals used in food processing. Organic foods have become steadily more popular as the public has become more concerned about health risks associated with chemicals in food products. Organic produce is now available in many food outlets, together with major supermarket chains. ________
A) Organic food is generally more expensive because organic farming requires more manual labour and attention.
B) You need to include at least twenty minerals in your diet.
C) Anyone who eats a varied diet of fresh fruits and vegetables, grains, dairy products, fish, and meat generally gets enough vitamins.
D) Fats are found in plant foods such as olives and peanuts as well as in animal products.
E) Proteins are the chemical compounds that form the basis of living matter.

20) . _________ The stimulus is carried by nerve fibres to the spinal cord and then to the brain, where the nerve impulse is interpreted as ache. The excessive stimulation of nerve endings during pain is attributed to tissue damage, and in this sense pain has a protecting value, serving as a danger signal of disease and often facilitating diagnosis. Unlike other sensory experiences, e.g., response to touch or cold, pain may be modified by sedatives and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or, if unusually severe, by opioid narcotics.
A) Non specific backache is difficult to diagnose.
B) Whatever type of back pain you have, you should contact your physician if it persists for more than three to four days.
C) Pain is unpleasant or hurtful sensation resulting from stimulation of nerve endings.
D) Painful periods, especially menstrual cramps, are also called dysmenorrheal which is a result of normal hormonal changes during menstruation.
E) If the pain is not severe, you may only need to take a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug such as aspirin.

21) . ________ It classically has a miniaturized full-function, typewriter-like keyboard for input and a small, full colour, liquid-crystal display for output. In addition to an operating system that is compatible with that of a desktop computer, a palmtop will typically contain a word processor, a spreadsheet program, and a calendar and phone book. A variety of other programs can be loaded and executed, and data can usually be transferred to and from a desktop computer.
A) This kind of palmtops are like personal digital assistants in that they accept handwritten or touch screen input.
B) Palmtops have more memory, a keyboard, and a greater variety of available programs.
C) A laptop is a very practical instrument for travelling businesspeople.
D) Price of an average laptop varies between $1850 and $2500.
E) A Palmtop is a lightweight, small, battery-powered, general-purpose programmable computer.

22) . The abominable snowman, or Yeti, is a humanlike creature so named because it is associated with the continuous snow region of the Himalayas. A figure unknown apart from through tracks ascribed to it and through alleged encounters, it is described as being 1.8 to 2.4 m tall and covered with long, dark hair. Attempts after the 1950s to verify the authenticity of its tracks have yielded no conclusive results. ________ A somewhat similarly described creature of North America is known as Bigfoot or Sasquatch.
A) For this reason, most scholars dismiss the existence of the creature.
B) Although Yeti’s anatomical structure was examined thoroughly, no evidence regarding its similarity to apes was revealed.
C) Adventurous people have witnessed the existence of the Yeti, the abominable snowman with a thick, hairy body the size of a large gorilla.
D) The Yeti is said to make random appearances around the Khumbu region (at foothills of the Everest.)
E) About a dozen people have claimed to have seen the Yeti. Among those include the father of Tenzing Norge Sherpa, the first person to climb Everest.

23) . Yoga is a general term for spiritual disciplines in Hinduism, Buddhism, and throughout Southern Asia that are directed toward attaining higher consciousness and liberation from ignorance, suffering, and rebirth. ________ Both Vedic and Buddhist literature talk about the doctrines of wandering ascetics in ancient India who practiced various kinds of austerities and meditation. The basic text of the Yoga philosophical school is a systematization of one of these older traditions. Contemporary systems of yoga stress that spiritual realization can be attained without the withdrawal from the world characteristic of the older traditions.
A) More specifically it is also the name of one of the six orthodox systems of Hindu philosophy.
B) Experienced yoga teachers can help with the correct postures and breathing techniques.
C) Taught by a certified yoga instructor, not by a health club instructor teaching glorified stretching exercises that they decide to call “yoga” or teaching “relaxation exercises.”
D) Yoga is enjoying growing popularity in Western countries.
E) Yoga has been shown to significantly decrease hyperglycaemia in non-insulin dependent diabetics.

24) . _________ For example, certain Hindu and Buddhist sects are vegetarian, as are Seventh-Day Adventists. As a general movement vegetarianism arose about the middle of the 19th century; it made considerable progress in Great Britain and in the United States. In the contemporary United States, vegetarianism has gained acceptance as a practice that lowers one’s risk for the “diseases of affluence,” e.g.. high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, and certain cancers.
A) Vegetarianism can be seen as a kind of self-expression, a decision to overcome our biological heritage as omnivores for a herbivorous diet more in accordance to our ethics or aesthetic.
B) Being adaptive we can become vegetarian if we choose today, but it is an individual choice made based on our own values and not on any biological support.
C) The word vegetarian, coined by the founders of the British Vegetarian Society in 1842, comes from the Latin word vegetus, meaning “whole, sound, fresh, or lively,” as in homo vegetus-a mentally and physically vigorous person.
D) Most vegetarians are people who have understood that to contribute towards a more peaceful society we must first solve the problem of violence in our own hearts.
E) The basis of the practice of vegetarianism may be religious or ethical, economic, or nutritional, and its followers differ as to strictness of observance.

25) .One of the most primeval and widespread sports, wrestling was most likely known in prehistoric times. ________ The Greeks practiced two forms of wrestling-upright and ground. Wrestling was also included in the pentathlon and the pankration; the most well-known Greek wrestler was Milo of Croton. Homer’s account of the match between Ajax and Ulysses is one of the world’s greatest wrestling stories. Wrestling tournaments were held in medieval Europe, and the sport has remained popular throughout history.
A) In ancient Greece, wrestlers were rated second only to discus throwers as popular Olympic heroes.
B) The colonists also found wrestling quite popular among the Native Americans.
C) The first organized national wrestling tournament was held in New York City in 1888, while the first wrestling competition in the modem Olympic Games was held in 1904 in Saint Louis, Missouri.
D) Wrestling became the national governing body of amateur wrestling in 1983, and conducts competitions for all age levels.
E) Amateur wrestling flourished throughout the early years of the nation, and served as a popular activity at country fairs, holiday celebrations, and in military exercises.

Cevabı Göster
1 C 1 E 1 A 1 A 1 B 1 B 1 C 1 C
2 A 2 C 2 E 2 E 2 D 2 D 2 B 2 D
3 C 3 B 3 B 3 C 3 E 3 E 3 B 3 B
4 D 4 D 4 A 4 D 4 A 4 A 4 B 4 A
5 A 5 E 5 D 5 A 5 B 5 B 5 D 5 D
6 D 6 E 6 E 6 B 6 A 6 A 6 A 6 C
7 B 7 D 7 C 7 A 7 C 7 C 7 C 7 E
8 B 8 B 8 A 8 B 8 A 8 A 8 A 8 A
9 A 9 A 9 B 9 D 9 E 9 E 9 D 9 C
10 C 10 C 10 C 10 E 10 C 10 C 10 E 10 B
11 A 11 B 11 B 11 C 11 C 11 C 11 C 11 A
12 B 12 E 12 E 12 A 12 B 12 B 12 A 12 B
13 E 13 D 13 C 13 E 13 B 13 B 13 B 13 E
14 D 14 E 14 E 14 B 14 E 14 E 14 D 14 D
15 E 15 C 15 C 15 B 15 D 15 D 15 D 15 A
16 D 16 D 16 D 16 E 16 B 16 B 16 D 16 B
17 B 17 A 17 A 17 D 17 A 17 A 17 B 17 E
18 A 18 B 18 B 18 E 18 E 18 E 18 B 18 B
19 E 19 B 19 D 19 E 19 B 19 B 19 A 19 B
20 B 20 D 20 C 20 B 20 D 20 D 20 C 20 C
21 C 21 A 21 D 21 A 21 E 21 E 21 E 21 A
22 A 22 B 22 E 22 B 22 B 22 B 22 A 22 E
23 B 23 E 23 E 23 E 23 D 23 D 23 A 23 B
24 C 24 D 24 E 24 D 24 E 24 E 24 E 24 D
25 A 25 B 25 A 25 B 25 A 25 A 25 A 25 D

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