Paragraf Tamamlama Test 7
| 1) . __________ The midnight sun is due to the fact that the plane of the earth’s equator is skewed about 231/2° to the plane of the ecliptic. Thus, at the summer solstice (about June 22), the sun is stilt visible on the horizon at midnight at all points along the Arctic Circle, 231/2° of latitude from the North Pole. At points north of the Arctic Circle, the midnight sun is visible for longer than one day, the North Pole having a full six months of continuous sun from the vernal equinox (about March 21) to the autumnal equinox (about September 23). In the south Polar Regions the midnight sun is visible along the Antarctic Circle at the winter solstice (about December 22) and south of the Antarctic Circle for longer periods.
A) Midnight sun cannot be observed from the regions located in the southern hemisphere.
B) Equator line is considered as one of the most suitable places to observe the midnight sun.
C) Midnight sun is phenomenon in which the sun remains visible in the sky continuously for 24 hours or longer, occurring only in the Polar, Regions.
D) Midnight sun is natural phenomenon that has never concerned the attention of the scientific circle so far.
E) Life for the local people living in the Arctic Circle is extremely challenging.
2) . Solar cell is a semiconductor devised to alter light to electric current. It is a particularly constructed diode, usually made of silicon crystal. When light strikes the exposed active surface, it knocks electrons loose from their sites in the crystal. Some of the electrons have sufficient energy to cross the diode junction. ________.Since the current obtained from these devices is small and the voltage is low, they must be connected in large series-parallel arrays if useful amounts of energy are to be converted.
3) . Seasonal migrations happen in many species of insects, birds, marine mammals, and large herbivorous mammals. ________ Many birds and a few bats of cold and temperate regions migrate to warmer areas during the winter. Herbivores of cold regions, such as wapiti, caribou, and moose, have summer and winter ranges; many herbivores of warm regions, such as the African antelopes, migrate seasonally to avoid drought. These migrations may involve a change of latitude, of altitude, or both.
4) . ________ The probability that stellar navigation is used has been strengthened by experiments in planetariums indicating that birds navigate at least in part by the stars. Night-migrating birds are sometimes perplexed in prolonged heavy fog. Day-flying birds navigate by the sun and also make some use of geographic features, particularly of shorelines. It has long been proposed that birds perceive the direction of the earth’s magnetic field and use it for navigation, but experimental evidence for that hypothesis is inconclusive.
5) . Millennium bug is a plan flaw in the hardware or software of a computer that causes erroneous results when working with dates beyond Dec. 31, 1999. In the 1960s and 70s programmers who designed computer systems dropped the first two digits of a year when storing or processing dates to save what then was expensive and limited memory; such a system records the year 2000 as 00 and cannot distinguish it from 1900. In sorting, comparison, and arithmetic operations, the year 2000 would be treated as if it were equivalent to 0 rather than 100, causing incorrect results. The algorithm used to calculate leap years may also be invalid, creating an additional problem in calculating the correct date after Feb. 28, 2000.________
6) . Empiricism is a philosophical doctrine that all knowledge is derived from experience. For most empiricists, experience includes inner experience-reflection upon the mind and its operations-as well as sense perception. This position is opposed to rationalism in that it denies the existence of innate ideas. ______ Therefore, knowledge of the physical world can be nothing more than a generalization from particular instances and can never reach more than a high degree of probability.
7) . Perspiration is the fluid secreted by the sweat glands of mammalian skin and containing water, salts, and waste products of body metabolism such as urea. The dissolved solid content of sweat is only one eighth that of an equal volume of urine, the body’s main vehicle of salt excretion. However, excessive sweating may produce severe salt loss. Human sweat glands are of two types, eccrine and apocrine. The eccrine glands, found everywhere on the body surface, are vital to the regulation of body temperature. Evaporation of the sweat secreted by the eccrines cools the body, dissipating the heat generated by metabolic processes.
8) . Petra is an antique rock city in present-day Jordan. ________.It was for many centuries the focal point of a vast caravan trade but declined with the rise of Palmyra. However, it remained a religious centre of Arabia. Under the Romans in the 2d and 3d century, it was included in the province of Arabia Petraea. An early seat of Christianity, it was occupied by the Muslims in the 7th century and in the 12th century was captured by the Crusaders, who built a citadel there. Petra was unidentified to the Western world until its ruins were visited by Johann Burckhardt in 1812.
9) . Petroleum has been known during historical time. Native Americans used it in magic and medication and in making paints. Pioneers bought it from the Native Americans for medicinal use and called it Seneca oil and Genesee oil. In Europe it was scooped from streams or holes in the ground, and in the early 19th century small quantities were made from shale. In 1815 several streets in Prague were lighted with petroleum lamps.
10) . Potential power is the capability for doing work that a body possesses because of its position or condition. For example, a stone resting on the edge of a cliff has potential energy due to its position in the earth’s gravitational field. ________ The stone’s potential energy is equal to its weight times the distance it can fall. A charge in an electric field also has potential energy because of its position; a stretched spring has potential energy because of its condition.
11) . _________ Reimbursement is made from a fund to which many individuals exposed to the same risk have contributed certain specified amounts, called premiums. Payment for an individual loss divided among many, does not fall heavily upon the actual loser The essence of the contract of insurance, called a policy, is mutuality. The major operations of an insurance company are underwriting, the determination of which risks the insurer can take on; and rate making, the decisions regarding necessary prices for such risks. The underwriter is responsible for guarding against adverse selection, wherein there is excessive coverage of high-risk candidates in proportion to the coverage of low risk candidates.
12) . Zoology is a division of biology concerned with the study of animal life. _________Cave art demonstrates the practical and mystical significance animals held for prehistoric man. Early efforts to classify animals were based on physical resemblance, habitat, or economic use. Although Hippocrates and Aristotle did much toward organizing the scientific thought of their times, systematic investigation declined under the Romans and, after Galen’s notable contributions, came to a virtual halt lasting through the Middle Ages. With the Renaissance direct observation of nature revived; landmarks were Vesalius’ anatomy and Harvey’s demonstration of the circulation of blood. The invention of the microscope and the use of experimental techniques expanded zoology as a field and established many of its branches, e.g., cytology and histology.
13) . Judo has been an Olympic sport for men since 1964 and for women since 1984. Both fight in eight weight classes. Proficiency in judo is indicated by the colour of a player’s belt; white indicates a beginner, black a master. There is a wide range of colour in between. In 1953 the Amateur Athletic Union recognized judo as a sport and sanctioned annual championships. ________
14) . The Marxist philosophical way is dialectical materialism, a reversal of the dialectical idealism of Hegel. _________.Through dialectical materialism was developed the fundamental Marxist premise that the history of society is the inexorable “history of class struggle.” According to this premise, a specific class could rule only so long as it best represented the economically productive forces of society; when it became outmoded it would be destroyed and replaced. From this continuing dynamic process a classless society would eventually emerge.
15) . Nosebleed happens as the result of local injury or trouble. Most nosebleeds are not serious and occur when one of the small veins of the septum ruptures. ________. A nosebleed may also occur in association with infections, heart failure, hypertension, arteriosclerosis, scurvy, leukemia, hemophilia, and other disorders. Persistent nosebleeds should be brought to the attention of a physician, who can stop the bleeding with vasoconstrictors and topical anesthetics.
16) . Official efforts at arms control have made some improvement, but only very gradually. The first resolution (1946) of the General Assembly of the United Nations set up an Atomic Energy Commission to make proposals for the peaceful uses of atomic power and for the removal of weapons of mass demolition. ________. However, the plan was vetoed by the USSR in the Security Council. As the cold war progressed, the commission reached an impasse (1948). With the proliferation of nuclear weapons, concern over the situation became more acute.
17) . ________ It is also concerned with analysis of diplomatic reports, newspapers, periodicals, technical publications, commercial statistics, and radio and television broadcasts. In the last fifty years spying activity has been greatly supplemented by technological advances, especially in the areas of radio signal interception and high-altitude photography. Observation with high-technology equipment on the ground or from high-altitude planes and satellites has become an important espionage method. Code making and code breaking have become computerized and very effective. The threat of foreign espionage is used as an excuse for internal suppression and the suspension of civil rights in many countries.
18) . ________ In feudal culture, for example, the capability to read and write was of significance only to the clergy and aristocracy. The first known reference to “literate laymen” did not appear until the end of the 14th cent. Illiteracy was not seen as a problem until after the invention of printing in the 15th cent. The first noteworthy decline in illiteracy came with the Reformation, when translation of the Bible into the vernacular became widespread and Protestant converts were taught to read it.
19) . Proponents of organic food state that it is more nourishing, safer to eat, and usually tastes better because it contains no synthetically compounded fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, hormones, medicated feed, or antibiotics or chemicals used in food processing. Organic foods have become steadily more popular as the public has become more concerned about health risks associated with chemicals in food products. Organic produce is now available in many food outlets, together with major supermarket chains. ________
20) . _________ The stimulus is carried by nerve fibres to the spinal cord and then to the brain, where the nerve impulse is interpreted as ache. The excessive stimulation of nerve endings during pain is attributed to tissue damage, and in this sense pain has a protecting value, serving as a danger signal of disease and often facilitating diagnosis. Unlike other sensory experiences, e.g., response to touch or cold, pain may be modified by sedatives and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or, if unusually severe, by opioid narcotics.
21) . ________ It classically has a miniaturized full-function, typewriter-like keyboard for input and a small, full colour, liquid-crystal display for output. In addition to an operating system that is compatible with that of a desktop computer, a palmtop will typically contain a word processor, a spreadsheet program, and a calendar and phone book. A variety of other programs can be loaded and executed, and data can usually be transferred to and from a desktop computer.
22) . The abominable snowman, or Yeti, is a humanlike creature so named because it is associated with the continuous snow region of the Himalayas. A figure unknown apart from through tracks ascribed to it and through alleged encounters, it is described as being 1.8 to 2.4 m tall and covered with long, dark hair. Attempts after the 1950s to verify the authenticity of its tracks have yielded no conclusive results. ________ A somewhat similarly described creature of North America is known as Bigfoot or Sasquatch.
23) . Yoga is a general term for spiritual disciplines in Hinduism, Buddhism, and throughout Southern Asia that are directed toward attaining higher consciousness and liberation from ignorance, suffering, and rebirth. ________ Both Vedic and Buddhist literature talk about the doctrines of wandering ascetics in ancient India who practiced various kinds of austerities and meditation. The basic text of the Yoga philosophical school is a systematization of one of these older traditions. Contemporary systems of yoga stress that spiritual realization can be attained without the withdrawal from the world characteristic of the older traditions.
24) . _________ For example, certain Hindu and Buddhist sects are vegetarian, as are Seventh-Day Adventists. As a general movement vegetarianism arose about the middle of the 19th century; it made considerable progress in Great Britain and in the United States. In the contemporary United States, vegetarianism has gained acceptance as a practice that lowers one’s risk for the “diseases of affluence,” e.g.. high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, and certain cancers.
25) .One of the most primeval and widespread sports, wrestling was most likely known in prehistoric times. ________ The Greeks practiced two forms of wrestling-upright and ground. Wrestling was also included in the pentathlon and the pankration; the most well-known Greek wrestler was Milo of Croton. Homer’s account of the match between Ajax and Ulysses is one of the world’s greatest wrestling stories. Wrestling tournaments were held in medieval Europe, and the sport has remained popular throughout history.
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