Paragraf Tamamlama Test 8
|[AKIN]1) . WWW is a collected works of globally distributed text and multimedia documents and files and other network services linked in such a way as to create an immense electronic library from which information can be retrieved quickly by intuitive searches. The Web represents the application of hypertext technology and a graphical interface to the Internet to retrieve information that is contained in specially formatted documents that may reside in the same computer or be distributed across many computers around the world. ________ As it’s name suggests, it is made up of many sites, all linked together, with users travelling from one site to the next by clicking a computer’s pointing device on a hyperlink.[/AKIN]
A) During 1989/90, the WWW is 20 years old and still primarily a network dominated by students and scientists.
B) The World Wide Web exists in 1989 at first only as an idea of a few scientists at the Swiss research institute CERN in Geneva.
C) The result is called the Web.
D) The Internet demonstrates its full potential as a publishing medium, and for the first time, it becomes clear that the WWW is not a toy for nerds but has instead become an effective mass medium.
E) In January 1998, Matt Drudge publishes early reports of Bill Clinton’s adventures with a White House intern at his gossip site, Drudge Report, and sets off a tidal wave of journalistic furore, culminating with the impeachment of the president at the end of the year.
2) . Pancake is thin, flat cake, made of batter and baked on a griddle or fried in a pan. Pancakes, probably the oldest form of bread, are known in different forms throughout the world. _________. Old English batter was mixed with ale. German and French pancakes, leavened toy eggs and much beating, are baked very thin and served with jam or jelly. In the United States pancakes are sometimes called hatter cakes, griddlecakes, or flapjacks and are usually leavened with baking powder or baking soda and are served with syrup.
3) . ________ Zeus ordered Hephaestus to create her as vengeance upon man and his benefactor, Prometheus. The gods endowed her with every charm, together with curiosity and deceit. Zeus sent her as a wife to Epimetheus, Prometheus’ simple brother, and gave her a “box that he forbade her to open. Despite Prometheus’ warnings, Epimetheus allowed her to open the box and let out all the evils that have since afflicted man. Hope alone remained inside the box.
4) . Papal election is carried by the college of cardinals meeting in secret conclave in the Sistine Chapel not less than 15 nor more than 18 days after the death of the previous pontiff. The election is by secret ballot; Pius XII fixed the electoral majority at two thirds plus one vote. The election itself confers on the new pope full jurisdiction; no further formality is necessary. The elected pope may decline; if so, the balloting resumes. The secrecy of the conclave is assured by shutting off the cardinals completely from the outside world, and at one time expedition was encouraged by severe restriction of the cardinals’ diet after a few days. ________ Thus, white smoke signifies that a new pope has been chosen.
5) . Paper is believed to have been invented by Ts’ai Lun circal05 in China, where it reached an advanced state of development. _________ Papermaking spread to Japan circa 610 and to Samarqand c.751, whence it was introduced by the Arabs into Egypt c.900 and by the Moors into Spain at Jativa c.1150. Mills were established in Italy c.1276; in France, c.1348; in Germany, 1390; and in England, 1495. European paper was usually made of flax and hemp. Primitive bark paper had been made in Mexico and Central America in pre-Columbian times. Paper was first produced in the American colonies in 1690 by William Rittenhouse at Germantown.
6) . Papyrus is now almost extinct in Egypt but so universally used there in antiquity as to be the hieroglyphic symbol for Lower Egypt and a common motif in art. The roots were used as fuel; the pith was eaten. ________ This writing material, which was also called papyrus, was formed into sheets by laying lengthwise slices of the sedge side by side in two layers at right angles and pressing them together with an adhesive probably composed of their own juices and Nile water. The sheets were glued end to end and rolled on wooden rods to form manuscripts.
7) . Paranoia is a term denoting persistent, unalterable, systematized, logically reasoned delusions, or false beliefs, usually of persecution or grandeur. In the former case the paranoiac creates a complex delusional system that purports to show that people want to hurt him; in the latter, he sees himself as an exalted person with a mission of great importance. ________ The term paranoia was first used by German psychiatrist Karl L. Kahlbaum in 1863. The condition, often known as delusional disorder, is found among individuals suffering from paranoid schizophrenia, paranoid personality disorder, and any of several paranoid disorders.
8) . Parasite is a plant or an animal that at some stage of its existence obtains its nourishment from another living organism called the host. ________ They include members of many plant and animal groups, and nearly all living things are at some time hosts to parasitic forms. Many bacteria are parasitic on external and internal body surfaces; some of these invade the inner tissues and cause disease. Parasitic plants cause great losses among food crops and trees.
9) . Parcel post is sending of packages through the mail service. At the congress of the Universal Postal Union in Paris in 1878, an international parcel-post system was established. The British parcel-post bill, passed in 1882, put into effect the following year domestic, colonial, and foreign services. ______o For example, the United States entered into conventions with other governments to convey parcels sent into the country but delayed instituting a domestic service until the Parcel Post Act of 1912: A water route for parcel post was started in 1917, and a fleet of trucks was put into operation in the East the next year.
10) . Harijans are untouchable individuals who are at the bottom of or outside the Hindu caste system in India. They were traditionally sweepers, washers of clothes, leatherworkers, and those whose occupation was to kill animals. __________ Originally called untouchables or pariahs, they were given the name Harijans by the Indian political and religious leader Mahatma Gandhi, who worked for many years to improve their lives.
11) . Paris is the centre of many major newspapers and periodicals, as well as all the major French radio and television stations. Elegant stores and hotels, lavish nightclubs, theatres, and gourmet restaurants help make tourism the biggest industry in Paris. Heavy industry, notably automobile manufacture, is located in the suburbs. About one quarter of the French labour force is concentrated in the Paris area.
12) . ________ The type of abacus now best known is represented by a frame with sliding counters. An elementary abacus might have ten parallel wires strung between two boards on a frame, with nine beads on each wire. Each bead on a given wire has the same value: either ten or some multiple or submultiples of ten. For example, all of the beads on a particular wire may have a value of 1, making this the units wire, or 10, making this wire the tens wire. Numbers are represented and added together on the abacus by grouping beads together.
13) . Economic planning requires control and direction of economic activity by a central public authority. In its modern usage, economic planning tends to be pitted against the laissez-faire philosophy that developed in the 18th century. ______ . The contemporary economic model of rational expectations offers perhaps the strongest critique of economic planning in its assertion that economic forecasting, both by individuals and competing businesses, is generally rational. In this model, government control of economic policy can only lead to complication, since any change instituted by central authorities has already been anticipated by the market.
14) . Juvenile delinquency is a legal term for behaviour of children and adolescents that in adults would be judged criminal under law. In the United States, definitions and age limits of juveniles vary, the maximum age being set at 14 years in some states and as high as 21 years in others! ______. A high proportion of adult criminals have a background of early delinquency. Theft is the most common offence by children; more serious property crimes and rape are most frequently committed in later youth.
16) . Microwave ovens use microwaves to rapidly cook food. _____. A special electron tube called a magnetron produces the microwaves. Typical output power for consumer devices ranges from 350 to 900 watts. To ensure even heating, the magnetron directs its waves at a rotating metal disk with offset vans, which scatters the waves through the oven cavity. Additionally, a rotating platform for the food is sometimes used. Power settings cycle
17) . ______ . It may be preceded by flashes or spots before the eyes or a ringing in the ears, and accompanied by double vision, nausea, omitting, or dizziness. The attacks vary in frequency from daily occurrences to one every few years. Migraine affects women three times as often as men and is frequently inherited. Many disturbances, such as allergy, temporary swelling of the brain, and endocrine disturbances, lave been suspected of causing some varieties of the disorder.
18) . Pidgin is a form of language that is not the mother tongue of anyone using it and that has a simplified grammar and a restricted, often polyglot vocabulary. The earliest documented pidgin is the Lingua Franca that developed among merchants and traders in the Mediterranean in the Middle Ages; it remained in use through the 19th century. ______. An example is the variety of Pidgin English that resulted from contacts between English traders and the Chinese in Chinese ports.
19) . Ebola virus, named for the region in Congo where it was first identified in 1976, emerged from the rain forest, where it survives in an as yet unknown host. Once a person is infected with the virus, the disease has an incubation period of 2-21 days; however, some infected persons are asymptomatic. Initial symptoms are sudden malaise, headache, and muscle pain, progressing to high fever, vomiting, severe haemorrhaging and in 50-90% of patients, death, usually within days. The likelihood of death is governed by the virulence of the particular Ebola strain involved. Ebola virus is transmitted in body fluids and secretions; there is no evidence of transmission by casual contact. ____________ .
20) ________ Adoption was recognized by Greek law but not by common law. Statutes first introduced adoption into U.S. law in the mid-20th century, and today it is allowed in all states of the United States and in Great Britain. Adoption is generally a judicial proceeding, requiring a hearing before a judge. Adoption statutes usually provide that the consent of the parents or guardian of the child-and that of the child, if above a certain age-must be obtained.
21) Anaemia is a situation in which the concentration of haemoglobin in the circulating blood is below normal. Such a condition is caused by a deficient number of erythrocytes (red blood cells), an abnormally low level of haemoglobin in the individual cells, or both these conditions simultaneously. ________ These symptoms consist of pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, weakness, dizziness, easy fatigability, and drowsiness. Severe cases show difficulty in breathing, heart abnormalities, and digestive complaints.
22) _________ Recent experimenters with laughing gas were Sir Humphrey Davy of England and Horace Wells of the United States. Ether came into general use after a demonstration at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston by William T. G. Morton in 1846. General anaesthetics, administered by inhalation or intravenous injection, cause unconsciousness as well as insensibility to pain, and are used for major surgical procedures. In the past, ether was the most commonly used general anaesthetic.
23) Anglican Community is the body of churches in all parts of the earth that are in communion with the Church of England. The communion consists of regional churches, provinces, and separate dioceses bound together by mutual loyalty as expressed in the Lambeth Conference of 1930. There are 38 self-governing churches in the Anglican household, including the Episcopal Church in the United States, the Scottish Episcopal Church, the Church in Wales, the Church of Ireland, and the Nippon Sei Ko . There are separate dioceses in Jerusalem and Egypt. In the late 20th century, the communion experienced tremendous growth in Africa.
24) Anglo-Saxon is the name given to the Germanic-speaking peoples who settled in England after the decline of Roman rule there. ________ The Angles seem to have come from what is now Schles in the later decades of the 5th cent. Their settlements in the eastern, central, and northern portions of the country were the foundations for the later kingdoms known as East Anglia, Merci, and Northum. The Saxons, a Germanic tribe who had been continental neighbours of the Angles, also settled in England in the late 5th century after earlier marauding forays there. The later kingdoms of Sussex, Wesse, and Essex were the outgrowths of their settlements.
25) Black Shirts is the colloquial term originally used to refer to the members of the Fasci compartment, units of the Fascist organization founded in Italy in March 1919, by Benito Mussolini. ________ The Black Shirts were mainly discontented ex-soldiers. They posed as champions of law and order and violently attacked Communists, socialists, and other radical and progressive groups. They broke up strikes, destroyed trade union headquarters, and drove socialist and Communist officials from office. In October, 1922, their activities culminated in the famous march on Rome, which brought Mussolini to power. Afterward, while the term “Black Shirts” continued to be used to refer to party militants in general, the name Fasci compartment designated the local party units.
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