Paragraf Tamamlama Test 9
| 1) Vast amounts of lead are required to create the batteries needed to power huge numbers of electric cars. American researchers have suggested that emissions from mining, smelting and the recycling of this lead would expose thousands of people living or working close to production sites to near toxic levels of lead. _____.
A) It is the insidious nature of air pollution and the inability of researchers to eliminate other factors and prove that the toxic cocktail of chemicals in our air is a direct health risk, which has led to muddled action by governments, worldwide.
B) Traditional lead-acid batteries appear to have the highest efficiency rates, but lead is one of the world’s deadliest pollutants.
C) If only five per cent of America’s 200 million vehicles were powered by lead-based batteries, an extra 21,000 tons of lead would be released into the environment annually.
D) The more high-tech combinations, like nickel cadmium, lithium polymer, sodium sulphur or zinc-air present environmental spillage problems, not to mention their high costs.
E) The two per cent scheme will not effectively control pollution because it only transfers it from the car to the power station.
2) Black Spider is poisonous spider of the genus Latrodec, found throughout North and South America and common in the southwest United States. The name derives from the fact that the female, like those of many other spider species, may eat the male after mating. The adult is black with a red or reddish-orange hourglass-shaped marking on the lower abdominal surface. The female is somewhat less than 1.5 cm long, and the male is much smaller. ________. Occasional fatal cases, which result from respiratory paralysis, are usually limited to children.
3) Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood upon the walls of the arteries. The pressure in the arteries originates in the pumping action of the heart, and pressure waves can be felt at the wrist and at other points where arteries lie near the surface of the body. Since the heart can pump blood into the large arteries more quickly than it can be absorbed and released by the tiny arterioles and capillaries, considerable inner pressure always exists in the arteries. The contraction of the heart causes the blood pressure to rise to its highest point, and relaxation of the heart brings the pressure down to its lowest point. ________ It diminishes progressively in the smaller blood vessels and reaches its lowest point in the veins
4) . Blueprint is a white-on-blue photographic print, commonly of a working drawing used during building or manufacturing. The plan is first drawn to scale on a special paper or tracing cloth through which light can penetrate. The drawing is then placed over blueprint paper, prepared with a mixture of potassium fericcanade and ammonium ferric citrate. When the attached drawing and the blueprint paper are exposed to a strong light, the unprotected ferric salt not lying beneath the lines of the drawing is changed to a ferrous salt that reacts with the fericcanade to form Turnbull’s blue. ________, The ferric salt under the lines of the drawing, protected from the light, remains and is dissolved during the washing in water that follows exposure. As a result, the lines of the original drawing appear white in the finished blueprint.
5) . Bolshevik Ballet is one of the principal ballet companies of Russia. It is a part of the Bolshevik Theatre, which also includes Russia’s premier opera company. ________ The Bolshevik Theatre, which opened permanently in 1856, in its early decades competed for pre-eminence with the Melinsky Theatre of St. Petersburg. Alexander Gorsky revitalized the dance company in the early 20th century and introduced a new dramatic realism to the classical ballets. Igor Molanev experimented with folk-dance ballets at the Bolshevik in the 1930s. The company is internationally acclaimed for its superb ensemble skills and for the spectacular realism of its scenery and costumes.
6) . Elongation is the angular distance between two points in the sky as measured from a third point. ________ When a planet lies on the line drawn from the earth to the sun, its elongation is 0° and is said to be in conjunction. When a planet’s elongation is 90°, it is in quadrate. When its elongation is 180°, it is in opposition. Elongation is measured east or west from the sun. The superior planets can have elongations between 0° and 180°; the elongations of the inferior planets are limited by their proximity to the sun. The greatest elongation of Mercury is 28°, and of Venus, 47°.
7) . One of the largest of the border cities. El Paso is a blend of the United States and Mexico. Its history closely linked to that of Juarez. In the 16th and 17th century, missionaries, soldiers, and traders came here. Although missions were founded at Ysleta and elsewhere north of the river, the major settlement was on the south bank.________
9) . Desktop publishing is a system for producing printed materials. ________ It has a computer program that allows the user to choose from a variety of type fonts and sizes, column justifications, page layouts, and graphics libraries. It also includes support for document creation and editing. Desktop publishing enables a small business or an individual to produce professional-quality materials on the premises inexpensively and quickly without the need for outside typesetting or printing facilities.
10) . Until the 16th century any formal communication or negotiation among nations was conducted either by means of ambassadors specially appointed for a particular mission or by direct correspondence among heads of states. This procedure was not always satisfactory. ________ . One of the first powers to do this was Venice, which in 1596 appointed two merchants as representatives in London because the journey to England was very long and very dangerous. Other countries later followed suit.
11) . In the 19th century there have been numerous meetings of heads of state and foreign ministers and various types of international conferences. ________. Moreover, some claim that modern communications have also changed diplomacy greatly by removing whatever autonomy diplomats may once have had in making policy decisions. The possibility of telephone or other direct contact with a superior has allegedly reduced diplomats to quasi-messengers. Even if this may appear true, diplomats continue to serve as expert advisers. Although they are not empowered to make final decisions, they greatly influence the decision-making process.
12) . Embezzlement is the wrongful use, for one’s own selfish ends, of the property of another when that property has been legally entrusted to one. Such an act was not larceny at common law because larceny was committed only when property was acquired by a “felonious taking.” ____________As a consequence of this, unfaithful servants, employees, agents, trustees, or guardians who misappropriated another’s property could be sued only in the civil courts. It is because although the defendant had legally come into possession of the property, he had breached his trust by wrongfully misappropriating it to his own use.
13) . _________ Impact printers use a mechanical hammering device to produce each character. A formed character printer forces metal or plastic characters against an inked ribbon to produce a sharp image on paper; the characters may be on a moving bar, a rapidly rotating chain, a routable ball, or wheel spokes. A dot matrix printer uses a matrix of tiny pegs that, when hit from behind against a ribbon, impart a set of dots to form a character on the paper; a wide variety of characters and graphics is created using different dot combinations. Although noisy, impact printers can produce multiple copies of business forms simultaneously using carbon or carbonless techniques.
14) . _________ In its widest explanation, the embryo is the young from the moment of fertilization until it has become structurally complete and able to survive as separate organism. As an embryo, , the young animal may undergo metamorphosis or may remain wholly dependent on the mother for some time after birth. Since the seedling derives nourishment from food stored in its fleshy cotyledons even after it has sprouted, the exact limit of the time during which an organism is an embryo has not generally been well defined.
15) . Computer is a device capable of performing a series of arithmetic or logical operations. A computer is distinguished from a calculating machine, such as an electronic calculator, by being able to store a computer program, by the number and complexity of the operations it can perform, and by its ability to process, store, and retrieve data without human intervention. Computers developed along two separate engineering paths, producing two distinct types of computer-analog and digital. ________
16) . ________ This event involves the union of two unlike sex cells, the sperm and the ovum, followed by the joining of their nuclei. In the flowers of higher plants, the process occurs after pollination has enabled the sperm to contact the egg cell in the plant’s ovary. In lower plants and in animals the sperm is actively motile and swims to the egg through an external aqueous medium or through a fluid environment within the reproductive tract of the female. The fundamental principle of fertilization is the same in all organisms.
17) . Within the biosphere-the total expanse of water, land, and atmosphere able to sustain life-the basic ecological unit is the ecosystem._______. Each ecosystem consists of a community of plants and animals in an environment that supplies them with raw materials for life, i.e., chemical elements and water. The ecosystem is delimited by the climate, altitude, water and soil characteristics, and other physical conditions of the environment.
18) . E-commerce is a developing type of commerce conducted over the Internet, most often via the World Wide Web. E-commerce can apply to purchases made through the Web or to business-to-business activities such as inventory transfers. A customer can order items from a vendor’s Web site, paying with a credit card or with a previously established cyber cash- account. ________. Personal and account information is kept confidential through the use of secured transactions that use encryption technology.
19) . Senior research officer of the China Federation of Youth Groups Pang Kin -fu suspects teenage pregnancy is on the rise. ______. One quarter said they consented to sex after repeated requests from their boyfriends. And more than half didn’t use any contraception due to their partner’s objection, lack of knowledge or motivation to take chances.
20) . A total solar eclipse can occur only when the moon is in Its new phase.________ At the onset of totality, parts of the sun may be seen shining brightly between the high points of the moon’s irregular edge, a phenomenon known as Bail’s beads; the disk of the moon appears black and is surrounded by the sun’s corona, out of which shoot immense, flame like spurts called prominences. The sky darkens to twilight, the brightest stars become visible, and there is a noticeable drop in temperature. Bail’s beads are seen again as the sun reappears and the sky grows lighter.
21) -Children with specific health conditions have more and more opportunities to have fun at camps designed for their needs. Campers can enjoy canoeing, crafts and drama while medical staff and services are available at all times. Space may be limited, so families should book early. _____.
22) . ______. A day devoted to the celebration of motherhood is a wonderful idea – a day when we can let mothers know how much we appreciate them. But the pressure of finding the perfect Mother’s Day gift leaves many of us in a panic.
23) . To get yourself going, you must conclude that the advantages of exercise far outweigh the disadvantages. _____ Here are a few of the dozens of reasons you could put in the pro column: exercise reduces your risk of developing heart disease; it helps you manage stress; it increases your ability to withstand cold and resist upper-respiratory infections; and, as if that’s not enough, a recent study on sedentary men shows that exercise enhanced their sexual desire, performance and satisfaction.
24) . The festival has its origins in the middle ages and the race has been run every July 2nd and August 16th for at least 600 years. ______. These contrade are represented by a symbol. There is much more to the festival than the race itself, though-feasting, the blessing of the horse inside the contrade’s church, elaborate parades, music and medieval costumes are all elements that add to it’s complexity.
25) . Obsidian is a magazine about folklore and magic. It applies the lore of the ancients to the modern search for meaning in a technological world. Whether that meaning is reflected in the roots of things, in wisdom and knowledge, in myth and legend, or in moonlit mystery, you will find it here. ______.
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