Nigeria is heavily dependent on the export of crude oil to finance industrial development. 95% of Nigeria’s exports by value are crude oil. At current production rates, known reserves are only sufficient until the end of the century. Industrialization was boosted after 1973 following the fourfold increase, in oil prices. In the early 1980s prices fell, and Nigeria lost important income. Oil production peaked in 1974 when output reached 112 million tones.
Q. It is emphasized in the passage that the sharp rise in oil prices in 1973 …….. .
a. had less effect on Nigeria’s economy than might have been expected
b. contributed greatly to industrial development in Nigeria
c. coincided with a considerable fall in oil production
d. provided Nigeria with a high revenue well into the late 1980s
e. put a great deal of pressure on Nigeria’s oil reserves
Q It is clearly understood from the given passage that only a fraction of Nigeria’s exports ……… .
a. are goods other than crude oil
b. would be needed to support industrial development
c. were affected by the fail in oil prices in the 1980s
d. were oil-related
e. have benefited from price increases
Q.. The passage says that ,as long as the current rate of oil production is maintained …………. .
a. world oil prices are not expected to rise significantly
b. Nigeria’s industrial development plans will soon be fully realized
c. Nigeria is likely to have no oil reserves left by the year 2000
d. Nigeria will continue to enjoy large revenues
e. the variety of goods exported from Nigeria will increase
Real depression cannot be as easily overcome as some people often suppose. It generally passes with time-but the time can seem endless. Activities giving companionship and a new interest can help. However for the sufferer to talk, again and again, about the causes of the depression helps most. People with depression need to be listened to and encouraged to find their own solutions, not made to feel yet more inadequate by good advice. They might need professional counseling as well as the support of family and friends.
Q. According to the passage;in overcoming depression the support of friends and family ……….. .
a. can best be directed into giving good advice
b. is the only solution
c. may cause more harm than good
d. never contributes to any improvement in the patient
e. is not always sufficient
Q. The author suggests that people with depression …………. .
a. should not be allowed much social activity
b. should rely solely on professional counseling
c. need, more than anything else, someone to listen to them
d. ought to remain alienated from society for a long time
e. receive an unnecessary amount of sympathy
Q. It is understood from the passage some people ………….. .
a. seem to underestimate how difficult it is to get over depression
b. suffer from depression over long periods of time
c. refuse to get professional counseling
d. suffering from depression have been cured through the good advice of friends
e. with depression don’t want to talk about their problems
Several art museums and galleries and many individuals in the art world faced financial problems in 1975 as the effects of world recession deepened. On the surface things seemed to continue as before, with important exhibitions in major museums attracting large crowds. But smaller galleries, and the artists whose work was shown by their resourceful proprietors, fared less well, and over the long term it is the work of young artists that determines the course of art for the future.
Q.According to the passage;the point made in the passage is that the recession in the 1970s …………. .
a. forced many young artists to give up their profession
b. led to the immediate closure of several major museums in the West
c. was one of the most serious in economic history
d. didn’t at first appear to hit hard at the art world
e. meant exhibitions were regarded as unnecessary luxuries
Q One can understand from the given passage that if a generation of young artist is lost ……….. .
a. this would not have a damaging effect on art museums and galleries even in the long run
b. the future development of art will be greatly hampered
c. recession in the art market would not last very long
d. smaller galleries would benefit from it
e. the organizing of exhibitions would be even more costly
Q. The passage gives the idea that, the people in the art world who were most strongly affected by the recession ………….. .
a. were young artists and the owners of small galleries
b. tried to balance their losses by buying up the work of young artist
c. were the well established art dealers
d. decided to stop holding exhibitions altogether
e. resorted to all sorts of methods of attracting large crowds to their galleries
Computers should never have acquired the exalted status they now have. Fascinating and invaluable as they are, even the most advanced have less brain power than a three-year-old. But,they do, score on single-mindedness. The three-year-old uses his brain not only to think but also to do tasks like seeing, hearing and running about, which need incredibly rapid and sophisticated electromechanical interactions we too run on electricity. However the computer just sits there and sends spacecraft to the moon or re-organizes the world banking system-which is very much easier. That’s why man’s dream of robot servants is still a long way off.
Q. The basic point made by the given passage is that the human brain ……… .
a. is much inferior to any known computer
b. is infinitely more complex and powerful than any computer
c. reaches its maximum efficiency at the age of three
d. is not as complicated and mysterious as has usually been thought
e. has been entirely reproduced in computer form
Q. It is mentioned in the passage that the efficiency of the computer ………… .
a. will soon make it possible for man to be served by robots
b. depends on the speed with which the data are fed
c. can best be appreciated in the decision making positions
d. is the result of its being concentrated on one task at a time
e. depends upon sophisticated electromechanical interactions
Q. The writer feels that computers ………….. .
a. are becoming unaffordable as they get more advanced
b. have contributed immensely to the improvement of living standards
c. have been unnecessarily overrated
d. will be a major force behind all future progress
e. are capable of doing all the tasks the human brain performs even more efficiently
The dramatic growth of the world’s population in the twentieth century has been on a scale without parallel in human history. Most of that growth has occurred since 1950 and is known as the population ”explosion”. Between 1950 and 1980 the world population increases from 2.5 to over 4 billion, and by the end of the century that figure will have risen to at least 6 billion. Growth of this size cannot continue indefinitely. Recent forecasts suggest that the total population will level-out at between 10 and 15 billion in the mid twenty-first century. Already there are encouraging signs that the rate of increase in several less developed countries is beginning to slow down.
Q. According to the given passage above , at no period in human history has there been …….. .
a. so much consensus among nations concerning the population of the world
b. a sharp decline in population like the one since 1980
c. a universal fear about the future of man
d. as comprehensive a study of population problems as the one envisaged now
e. a population explosion of the magnitude of the one in this century
Q It is emphasized in the passage that the increase in the world population …… .
a. is a highly encouraging sign for the general economy
b. is expected to continue even faster until 2050
c. will not continue into the next century
d. has been going on noticeably since 1950
e. has been much faster in the industrialized countries
Q. The passage says that;it has been forecast that, by the middle of the next century ……… .
a. various measures will have been taken to encourage population growth
b. the population growth rate in less developed countries will be much higher than that in previous years
c. the world population will be stabilized at around 10 to 15 billion
d. the rate of increase will still be rising
e. the rate of population increase will have doubled the 1950 rate
Many substances, whether man-made or natural, can cause harm to man or the environment. Some of these reach the environment in waste streams;but emission limits and environmental quality standards can, in some instances, reduce the amounts released. However some other substances cannot be controlled in this way because they are released, not in industrial waste streams, however through the use or disposal of products which contain them. In many cases these substances pose little or no threat if the product containing them is used and disposed of properly. The right way to deal with them is generally through controls over their supply, use and disposal.
Q.. The passage gives the idea that, the threat of certain substances to the environment …………
a. is far less than that to man
b. could be reduced by enforcing emission limits and environmental controls
c. has been unnecessarily overemphasized
d. has to date been completely ignored
e. can be eliminated by the use of industrial waste streams
Q The writer emphasizes that the danger posed to man by many substances …… .
a. is unrelated to environmental pollution
b. is even greater than generally admitted
c. continues to grow despite constant control of disposal systems
d. is solely due to the use of industrial waste streams
e. arises from their misuse and wrong disposal
Q.. The passage above is related to the question of …………. .
a. how the harmful effects of certain substance can be brought under control
b. why industrial waste streams have caused so much pollution
c. whether man-made substances or natural ones cause more pollution
d. what measures are to be taken against the supply of dangerous substances
e. who is responsible for taking the required measures
No one knows when fiction began. Perhaps the first story-teller was a prehistoric mother trying to explain the world to her children. Or perhaps it was a hunter telling about his adventures around the camp fire. Who can tell? What we do know, though, is that story-telling was a purely oral activity until around 800 BC. Myths and tales were passed down by word of mouth and had to be memorized by each new generation of story-tellers. That oral tradition only changed when ancient people started to keep written records of certain stories. The earliest surviving examples of those are the epics of Homer, a blind professional story-teller, who lived in the eighth century BC.
Q. It is pointed out in the passage that story-telling ………….
a. was first introduced by Homer in ancient times
b. possibly began in prehistoric times
c. began as a written activity in antiquity
d. became less and less popular during the 8th century BC
e. became far more popular with the invention of writing
Q. The passage says that the Homeric epics ………….
a. were among the first stories to be written down
b. consisted mainly of myths and other tales
c. are the first examples of prehistoric tales and myths
d. were not the best of their kind in the 8th century BC
e. have often been imitated successfully in later centuries
Q. The passage gives the idea that, throughout the oral tradition, professional story-telling ………….
a. were much respected in primitive societies
b. depended on Homer for their stories
c. were skilful at creating new stories
d. collected the first stories going back to prehistoric times
e. used to learn myths and tales by heart
The printing press was invented by Gutenberg in the city of Mainz, in Germany. He built and operated the printing press with movable metal letters. In fact, simple printing methods had existed for centuries, however they had to be done by hand and took a long time. What made Gutenberg’s press so different was that the individual letters themselves could rapidly and easily be moved to create different pages. That made it possible to print entire books more cheaply and more quickly than ever before.
Q. It is emphasized in the passage that the basic new feature of Gutenberg’s printing press ………….
a. was that all the pages of a book were printed at the same time
b. was that it could easily be operated by unskilled workmen
c. was that the printing of books was less costly although it took a long time to do
d. was the use of metal letters that could be moved into different positions
e. made it possible to print books without any error at all
Q. It is understood from the passage that actually, the history of printing ………….
a. first begins with Gutenberg’s invention
b. has always been associated with Germany
c. can be traced back well before the time of Gutenberg
d. runs parallel to the history of books
e. gives less importance to Gutenberg’s invention than it deserves
Q. It is obvious from the passage that the printing techniques introduced by Gutenberg ………….
a. made printing more complicated and time-consuming
b. was not as important as it has often been thought
c. was not used outside Germany for a long time
d. speeded up the printing of books
e. adopted the metal letters system of easier printing methods
In several countries in the process of industrialization, overcrowded cities present a major problem. The overpopulation of towns is mainly caused by the drift of large numbers of people from the rural areas. The only long-term solution is to make life in the rural areas more attractive, which would encourage people to stay there. This could be achieved by providing incentives for people to go and work in the villages. Moreover, facilities in the rural areas, such as transportation, health and education services should be improved.
Q. The passage says that , one significant outcome of industrialization has been ………….
a. a massive migration from the countryside to cities
b. a general improvement in the quality of urban life
c. the decline of health services in cities
d. the emergence of new cities throughout the country
e. an overall increase in the population of the country
Q. The author emphasizes that one way in which rural life might be made from attractive ………….
a. has already been tried; namely improved education services
b. would be to set up better medical facilities
c. has been suggested by those migrating to the towns
d. has been regarded by some as a threat to the progress of industrialization
e. is likely to prove unpopular among city-dwellers
Q. The writer suggests that, so as to solve the problem of overcrowding in cities, ………….
a. health and education services in the cities have to be modernized
b. transport facilities have to be renewed completely
c. measures should be taken to make the city environment more attractive
d. the number of those migrating to the cities should be restricted
e. living conditions in the countryside need to be made better and more agreeable
From the beginning of human history every society has had some way of preparing young people for adult life. Many communities have regarded education as training for work. In many traditional societies children still help the older members of the family in their work and so grow up to do the same jobs as their parents. Elsewhere young boys used to be sent away for several years as apprentices to a craftsman to learn his trade. In the modern world, however, the main aim of education is to stimulate the child’s mind and enable him to develop his personality and abilities to their limits.
Q. The passage gives the idea that; in the past, education ………….
a. was offered only to adults
b. was generally understood as a means of learning a skill
c. was strictly confined to the family environment
d. was not taken seriously by parents
e. didn’t relate at all to e person’s working life
Q. The writer emhasizes that, throughout history, in some way or another, ………….
a. boys have often managed to avoid work that requires a lot of physical effort
b. parents have been reluctant to improve the education of their children
c. children have been forced to learn several crafts
d. children have been given an education to equip them for the future
e. young people have chosen different ways of life from those of their parents
Q. One can conclude from the given passage that modern education ………….
a. is a clear continuation of the practices of earlier times
b. is more interested in practical skills than in mental development of any kind
c. gives more importance to the development of a child’s mind and character than it used to
d. does not prepare young people for their future
e. puts too much pressure on a child