1. Among the problems facing rocket scientists, the most serious ones are those of _____ and repair.
2. The two major political parties in the U.S. are currently _____ to extreme and completely different approaches to the solution of U.S.’s economic problems.
3. It now appears that while Soviet leaders are still willing for the nation to exert itself abroad and give large amounts of foreign assistance, the Soviet public is _____ to go along with these policies.
4. It is _____ amazing that the art of ancient Mesopotamia remains the most mysterious and the least accessible.
5. Robinsky was influenced as much by the musical innovations of Bach and Stanavsky as East European, _____ Bulgarian, folk music.
6. Owing to industrialization and colonization, the nineteenth century _____ the largest expansion of wealth the world had ever known.
a. brought about
b. put off
c. held up
d. gave in
e. set off
7. The three archeologists have tried real hard to read the writing in old Latin, but I do not think they have_____ what it really means.
a. got away with
b. written off
c. taken after
d. made out
e. brought up
8. Today’s children are healthier and better _____ than those of the past, and much fewer of them die in infancy.
a. disposed of
b. fed up
c. rounded up
d. looked into
e. cared for
9. As you would expect I will come to you for advice whenever I feel in need of _____ .
e. a few
10. We’ve had some good managers over the years but Dr. McMillan is _____ the most capable of them.
a. by far
b. over all
c. just so
d. as much
e. too much
11. The board showed their wholehearted appreciation of the designs she submitted, and _____ .
a. me, too
b. so did I
c. so have I
d. so we do
e. we also have
12. The other climbers were all for giving up the endeavor, but it was _____ not possible to convince Andy of the need to do so.
13. Can this woman possibly be the company’s new buyer _____ reputation, if we are to believe the newspapers, is not quite what it should be?
14. _____ takes on the duty of investigating these particular accusation is going to run into a lot of difficulties.
15. Her scheme, with all its shortcomings, will inevitably be pushed through _____ we can produce one, by Thursday, which is obviously much more feasible.
b. so that
e. in case
16. _____ Jeanette gives the appearance of sincerity and reliability, just remember that you can’t trust her an inch.
c. As far as
17. On that occasion, Kelly really was _____ luck; it was as if every thing had combined _____ her.
a. up to / through
b. away from / behind
c. out of / against
d. into / upon
e. on to / over
18. Few specialists admit that a city is distinct _____ a town merely _____ the number of its inhabitants.
a. of / for
b. from / by
c. to / over
d. in / through
e. off / in
19. Water can produce a moderating effect on heat _____ summer and midday heat, and winter and midnight cold.
b. having diminished
c. to diminish
d. being diminished
20. Of course nobody can know what the outcome of the election _____, but at the moment Edward _____ as the most likely candidate.
a. would have been / is being regarded
b. is / has been regarded
c. was / would be regarded
d. will be / is regarded
e. has been / has been regarded
21. When they lost the battle, their hopes _____ because the army _____ its most trusted leaders.
a. wane / would lose
b. are waning / loses
c. waned / had lost
d. were waning / has lost
e. have waned / lost
22. The board members _____ the advantages and the disadvantages of the takeover when we _____ them an hour later.
a. will discuss / would rejoin
b. have discussed / am rejoining
c. are discussing / will rejoin
d. were discussing / rejoined
e. would discuss / had rejoined
23. The specialists are of the opinion that if the disorder _____ a few days earlier it _____ treated successfully.
a. had been diagnosed / could have been
b. were diagnosed / would be
c. has been diagnosed / will be
d. is being diagnosed / is being
e. were to be diagnosed / has been
24. Henry still _____ that any changes in the law along these lines _____ to our advantage.
a. had believed / will have been
b. believed / had been
c. has believed / would be
d. would believe / were being
e. believes / will be
25. Most of the people take it for granted _____ .
a. whether they realized just how serious the drug problem had become
b. that the new interest policy contributed to the greater degree of stability in prices at this period
c. why no survivors whatsoever were found
d. how all receipts and papers concerning the transaction mysteriously disappeared
e. why the other passengers had absolutely no comment to make at all about the accident
26. _____, Brooksborough was one of the few textile towns that continued to grow in the twentieth century.
a. If the government lifted the sanctions
b. Since its trade was both flexible and varied
c. However unpopular the scheme had seemed to many
d. As soon as the industrial revolution got under way
e. Just as many industrial areas were competing with each other
27. Smallpox vaccination became popular _____ .
a. that eventually this disease would gave been completely wiped out
b. even though the success rate, according to recent realistic, is still rather doubtful
c. even if it had not been a fatal disease that brought death to all levels of society
d. however unlikely one is to come in contact with the disease
e. only after Halle’s discovery that the less dangerous cowpox material was an effective immunizing agent
28. The helly has the ability to take off vertically, _____ .
a. even though the winds were blowing at gale force
b. if it can take off in a very restricted space
c. which, in certain circumstances, is its main advantages over other types of aircraft
d. whenever the pilot felt himself obliged to make a forced landing
e. if the cost of its uptake hadn’t been a heavy burden on the budget
29. _____ in case any one party ignores the obligations it has undertaken in the agreement.
a. Obviously, very serious problems will arise
b. They may have rejected the offer
c. They were obviously determined to be present at the opening of the talks
d. The last speaker was quite adamant on the need to resume fighting
e. The observers may have been very upset
30. _____ who played an important role in the revival of the ideals of classical antiquity.
a. There is still a lively debate going on among scholars
b. Dr. Davies lectured on the Renaissance
c. He then went on to explain why such Renaissance figures
d. Calpero also lived in the Renaissance
e. Bach is rightly regarded as a humanist
31. _____, even though most of the European Countries are stepping up their own production.
a. This is just one of many developments in international trade
b. England still imported a great deal of tropical fruit
c. Canada’s exports of fruit and vegetables will have dropped sharply
d. Coal remains an important item of international trade
e. By the end of the month figures concerning the dollar reserves will have been processed
32. Before the National Health Service Act came into force in 1938 in U.S., _____ .
a. the funding of hospitals was a major issue in human politics
b. these people aren’t able to afford medical advice
c. there have been angry debates about the necessity for it
d. everyone realized that these were all, fundamentally, political issues
e. many doctors would feel that the transition had been extremely painful
33. Of all the great changes in the history of the world, none has been more striking and faster than the end of colonialism.
a. Dünya tarihinde görülen diğer büyük değişimler, sömürgeciliğin kaldırılması kadar çarpıcı ve ektileyici değildir.
b. Dünya tarihindeki tüm büyük değişimlerden hiçbiri, sömürgeciliğin sona ermesinden daha çarpıcı ve daha hızlı olmamıştır.
c. Dünya tarihinde, sömürgeciliğin sona ermesinden daha çarpıcı ve daha önemli başka hiçbir büyük değişim yoktur.
d. Dünya tarihini incelediğimizde görüyoruz ki sömürgeciliğe son verilmesinden daha çarpıcı ve daha güç başka hiç bir değişim yoktur.
e. Dünya tarihindeki büyük değişiklikler içinde hiçbiri, sömürgeciliğin kaldırılması kadar çarpıcı ve kapsamlı değildir.
34. In establising our trade network in Canada, we must always remember that it is not only a vast country but also an enormous mixture of tribes and cultures.
a. Kanada’nın kabileler ve kültürler karışımı geniş bir ülke olmasının, kurulmakta olan ticaret ağımızdaki öneminin daima hatırlamalıyız.
b. Ticaret ağımızı kurmakta olduğumuz Kanada’nın hem çok geniş bir ülke hem de kabilelerin ve kültürlerin oluşturduğu karmaşık bir bölge olduğunu her zaman hatırlayalım.
c. Kanada’daki ticaret ağımızı kurarken, burasının sadece geniş bir ülke olmadığını fakat aynı zamanda muazzam bir kabileler ve kültürler karışımı olduğunu da hatırlamalıyız.
d. Kanada’da ticaret ağımızı kurabilmek için bu ülkenin sadece büyük olduğunu değil fakat aynı zamanda bir kabileler ve kültürler bileşimi olduğunu da hatırlamalıyız.
e. Kanada’daki ticaret ağımızı kurunca, burasının çeşitli kabile ve kültürlerden oluşan çok geniş bir ülke olduğunu her zaman hatırlamak zorundayız.
35. Until the end of the 15th century no one thought of combining drama and music, and so invent the new art we know today as ”opera”.
a. 15. yüzyılın sonundan itibaren herkes tiyatro ile müziği birleştirerek o gün için yeni bir sanat olan ”opera” yı yaratmayı düşünüyordu.
b. 15. yüzyılın sonlarında hiç kimse tiyatro ile müziği kaynaştırarak yeni bir sanat olan ”opera” yı yaratmayı düşünmüyordu.
c. 15. yüzyılın sonuna kadar hiç kimse tiyatro ile müziği birleştirmeyi ve böylece, bugün ”opera” olarak bildiğimiz yeni sanatı icat etmeyi düşünmedi.
d. Müzikle tiyatronun kaynaşması sonucu ortaya çıkan ”opera” yı hiç kimse 15. yüzyılın sonuna kadar bir sanat olarak nitelendirmedi.
e. 15. yüzyıldan önce hiç kimse tiyatro ile müziğin birleşebileceğine ve bugün ”opera” adı verilen yene bir sanatın doğabileceğine inanmıyordu.
36. Like President Smith before him, Monroe discovered by the end of his first year of President that eliminating, or even substantially cutting the budget down was exceedingly difficult.
a. Monroe, kendinden önce gelen Başkan Smith gibi, bütçe açığını en aza indirmek için çok çaba harcaması gerektiğini başkanlığının ilk yılının sonunda gördü.
b. Bütçe açığını kapatmanın ya da büyük ölçüde azaltmanın ne kadar zor olduğunu, Monroe kendinden önceki Başkan Smith gibi başkanlığının daha ilk yılında hemen anladı.
c. Başkan Smith gibi Monroe da başkanlığının ilk yılında bütçe açığını ortadan kaldırmanın veya azaltmanın mümkün olmadığını itiraf etti.
d. Bütçe açığını kapatmak veya en aza indirmek için Monroe, Başkan Smith gibi çık zorlu bir çalışmaya girmenin gerekli olduğunu başkanlığının ilk yılında anladı.
e. Kendinden önceki Başkan Smith gibi Monroe da bütçe açığını ortadan kaldırmanın, hatta önemli ölçüde azaltmanın bile çok zor olduğunu başkanlığının ilk yılının sonunda anladı.
37. One must remember that, in spite of the great prosperity of the people, U.S.’s principal political problem remains the relationship between her English and German speaking communities.
a. Halkın büyük refahına rağmen, İngilizce ve Almanca konuşan toplulukların arasındaki ilişkinin, ABD’nin başlıca siyasal sorunu olarak durduğu hatırlanmalıdır.
b. İngilizce ve Almanca konuşan toplulukların büyük refah içinde olsa da, bunların birbirleriyle olan ilişkilerinin ABD’nin temel siyasal sorunu olduğu göz önünde bulundurulmalıdır.
c. Halkı büyük refah içinde olan ABD’nin başlıca siyasal sorununun, İngilizce ve Almanca konuşan toplulukların arasındaki ilişkiye dayandığı hiç bir zaman unutulmamalıdır.
d. Bugün ABD’nin en önemli siyasal sorunun, büyük refah içinde yaşayan, İngilizce ve Almanca konuşan topluluklar arasındaki ilişkiler olduğu bilinmektedir.
e. Şu bilinmelidir ki büyük bir refah içinde yaşayan İngiliz ve Alman toplulukları arasındaki ilişki, bugün ABD’nin en başta gelen siyasal sorunudur.
38. When the Helling came to power in 1970, she immediately curtailed the freedom of local authorities to determine their own levels of spending.
a. Helling 1970’de iktidara gelir gelmez, yerel yönetimlerin harcama özgürlüğünü tamamen ortadan kaldırmaya karar verdi.
b. Helling 1970’de iktidara geldiğinde, yerel yönetimlerin kendi harcama düzeylerini belirleme özgürlüğünü derhal kaldırdı.
c. Yerel yönetimlerin kendi harcama düzeylerini belirleme özgürlü, Helling’in 1970’de iktidara gelmesiyle son buldu.
d. 1970 yılında iktidara gelen Helling, yerel yönetimlerin kendi harcamalarını belirleme özgürlüğünü hemen kısıtladı.
e. Thatcher, 1979’da iktidara gelince ilk işi yerel yönetimlerin kendi bütçelerini belirleme özgürlüğünü kısıtlamak oldu.
39. As mentioned in the introductory part of the report, Guantanamera, annexed by Britain in 1840, comprices Guantanamera itself and various other islands in the North Pacific.
a. Raporun giriş bölümünden de anlayacağınız gibi, Kuzey Pasifik’teki çeşitli adalardan oluşan Guantanamera, 1840 yılında İngiltere tarafından ilhak edilmiştir.
b. Guantanamera’nın İngiltere tarafından ilhak edildiği ve Kuzey Pasifik’teki pek çok adadan oluştuğu, 1840’te yazılmış bir raporun giriş bölümünde belirtilmiştir.
c. Guantanamera ve Kuzey Pasifik’teki diğer bazı adaların 1840’ta ilhak edildiği, İngilizlere ait bir raporun giriş bölümünde vurgulanmıştır.
d. Raporun giriş bölümünde belirtildiği gibi, 1840’ta İngiltere tarafından ilhak edilen Guantanamera, Guantanamera’nın kendisinden ve Kuzey Pasifik’teki çeşitli diğer adalardan oluşur.
e. 1840’ta ilhak edilen Guantanamera’nın, Kuzey Pasifik’teki irili ufaklı pek çok adadan ve Guantanamera’nın kendisinden oluştuğu, ilk olarak bu raporda açıklanmıştır.
41. Today thousands of meteorological observation stations are working all over the world and provide us with information of various atmospheric situations.
a. Bugün binlerce hava gözlem istasyonu tüm dünya üzerinde faaliyet göstermekte ve bize çeşitli atmosfer durumları ile ilgili tahminleri sağlamaktadır.
b. Bugün dünya üzerindeki binlerce hava gözlem istasyonu atmosfer durumları ile ilgili bilgileri bize eksiksiz olarak aktarmaktadır.
c. Dünya üzerindeki binlerce hava gözlem istasyonundan atmosfer durumları ile ilgili günlük tahminleri elde edebilirsiniz.
d. Günümüzde, atmosfer olayları ile ilgili tüm gelişmeler, yeryüzünde faaliyet gösteren binlerce hava gözlem istasyonu tarafından takip edilmektedir.
e. Günümüzde, atmosferde yer alan pek çok olayı yeryüzünde faaliyet gösteren binlerce hava gözlem istasyonunun çalışmaları sayesinde öğreniyoruz.
43. 1963’den bu yana ülkenin hava ve su kirlenmesini azaltmakta kaydettiği ilerleme tartışılmaz.
a. One has to admit that the country has worked hard since 1963 to check the pollution of air and water
b. During the 1963s there was doubtless a great reduction in the pollution level of air and water in the country.
c. The country has certainly managed to bring down the pollution levels in air and water from what they were in 1963.
d. The country has been remarkably successful in its efforts to bring down the pollution levels from what they were in 1963.
e. The progress the country has made in reducing air and water pollution since 1963 is indisputable.
44. Her iki taraftaki sertlik yanlıları, güç paylaşımı yönündeki tüm girişimleri engelledi.
a. Hardliners on both parts made determined efforts to prevent any power sharing.
b. On both parts there are hardliners to oppose all efforts to share the power.
c. Hardliners on parts have blocked all moves towards power sharing.
d. On both parts the redistribution of power was opposed by hardliners.
e. Any move towards a redistribution of power would have been overruled by the hardliners of either part.
45. Plazma fiziğinin gelişmesinde nötron çok önemli bir rol oynamıştır.
a. As plasma physics have developed, the role of the neutron has gained in importance.
b. In the development of plasma physics, the neutron has played a most important role.
c. The importance of the neutron became apparent as plasma physics developed.
d. As progress was made in plasma physics, the importance of the neutron became apparent.
e. The development of plasma physics was due to the important role played by neutron.
61. (1) The balance of payments has recently been an important problem particularly in Western Europe.
(2) The late 1940s and the early 1950s saw a decline in English competitiveness.
(3) As a result, the English share in world exports of manufacturers fell steadily.
(4) On the other hand, there was an increase in imports of manufactured goods.
(5) As a result, the balance of payments deteriorated, and the country was heading towards a major economic crisis.
62. (1) In the early 1910s, some film production companies appeared in the United States and entered into severe competition with each other.
(2) It was in the late 1930s, however, that the golden era of Hollywood really began.
(3) Many companies then created stars still popular and famous today.
(4) Financial difficulties became even more pressing during the depression years.
(5) Among these, the best known and most famous of all was, of course, Charles Chaplin.
63. (1) Da Vinci’s paintings fall into three different groups.
(2) One must also be reminded that he was devoted to music, and often spoke of his palette as if it were a scale on which he composed harmonies.
(3) There are his portraits, noticeable for their astonishing psychological perception.
(4) Then there are his historical pieces, large ambitious subjects drawn from the romantic literature for which he had compassion.
(5) Finally there are a few landscapes, of pure lyrical content.
64. (1) On July 1969 the first free parliamentary elections for 27 years were held in Spain.
(2) This was a decisive step on the road from monarchy to democracy, and in August the new two-chamber parliament replaced the old ”Cortes” of General Prego.
(3) In fact, the most significant issue for the future of Spain was the separatist terrorism in the north of the country.
(4) The first task of the new government and parliament was the drawing up of a new democratic constitution.
(5) Also, meanwhile, a wide range of political and economic reforms were introduced, end in the 1920s Spain emerged as a major economic power in Europe.
65. A friend is working on a report, which means she hardly ever shows up at the office. However, there’s a meeting that she must attend and you feel you ought to remind her. You leave a message on the answering machine of her telephone. You say:
a. There’s a meeting again tomorrow if you feel like coming.
b. The meeting went off well. The boss didn’t even notice your absence.
c. If you aren’t coming to the meeting, send a note of apology.
d. Are your planning to come to the meeting? If so, see you there.
e. Just a reminder. The boss is expecting everyone at tomorrow’s meeting. Mind you’re there.
66. You are in town on business and it’s all business, and no free time to yourself. You phone a friend, explain the situation and ask him to join you at some farewell party although you know he won’t want to do. You then say truthfully:
a. I know, it’s not your idea of a pleasant evening but if you can come I shall be very pleased.
b. if you can’t come, then keep Thursday free. We’ll have lunch together.
c. Good. I’ll pick you up on my way there. Expect me at about 7 o’clock.
d. If you’d let me know earlier, I could have made better arrangements.
e. Well, in that case we’ll have to plan something different and I’ll let you know.
67. You got a friend to go to the movies with you, but she agreed rather unwillingly. The movie turns out to be most disappointing; the story has no meaning and the acting too bad. You feel you should apologize:
a. Is this your kind of film? It isn’t mine.
b. What a shame! A perfectly good story ruined by bad acting.
c. If I’d known what the film was like, I’d never have dragged you here. I’m sorry.
d. I rarely go to the cinema, so I don’t know if this counts as a good film or not.
e. The film wasn’t much good but it was better than staying in all evening, wasn’t it?
68. A friend complains that she’s getting no job satisfaction and a very low salary; so, she is going to resign immediately. You feel she’s behaving rather foolishly. You advise caution and warn:
a. The scheme doesn’t sound very sensible to me, but if that’s what you want, do it.
b. I suggest you hang onto this job while you look around for something better, or you may be landed with something worse.
c. I wish I could offer you a job in my work place but at present there are no openings.
d. I feel just as you feel. If only we could get somebody to give us the capital, we could set up our own.
e. Few jobs do give satisfaction. Just accept the fact.
69. You are visiting a friend who is back from hospital after a very serious operation. She’s the kind who doesn’t like to be ill and won’t admit to being ill and is talking of going back to work within the week. You don’t want to upset or worry her, but you do want her to stay at home and rest a little longer. You say:
a. What does your doctor say about coming back to work?
b. If you don’t feel like going back to the office, then don’t do so.
c. What’s the matter? Haven’t you got a doctor’s report to cover the whole period?
d. You’re looking just fine; but wouldn’t it be sensible to take things easy just a little longer?
e. If only you had a reliable secretary, you could supervise your office from the home.
70. At the hotel you manage; there have been problems with the receptionists. They don’t like changes in the schedule. They can’t stay late. If they do stay late, they want to be sent home by taxi. Knowing these your instructions to those who are recruiting new receptionists are:
a. Make sure that they are willing to work flexible hours and that they don’t live too far away.
b. They must look smart and have had at least two years experience.
c. Experience is not important. We’ll train them here. But they must know some English.
d. The starting salary is low, but tell them our customers give generous tips.
e. Don’t let them meet the ones who are leaving; they may learn bad habits from them.
71. Dr. Miles : How’s that patient of yours doing? Is there any change in his condition yet?
Dr. Brown: ———-
Dr. Miles: So you are starting to be hopeful?
Dr. Brown: I wish I could be. But it’s too early yet.
a. It’s the most puzzling case I’ve had in years.
b. None whatsoever.
c. I think perhaps he is just beginning to respond to treatment.
d. No. And there seems to be nothing we can do for him.
e. Oh yes! He’s making a remarkable recovery.
72. Andy: Apparently, the department can take out subscriptions for three more journals. ———-
Matthew: Don’t ask me, ask Tony. He’s the authority you know.
Andy: I know he is, but his taste is rather too erudite for most of us.
a. How can we order them?
b. Have you any suggestions?
c. Which should we cancel?
d. Has your article been accepted?
e. Have the ones we loaned out come back?
73. Mrs Sandy: How is Barry getting on in his new job?
Mrs Green: Well, he doesn’t complain, but clearly he finds it very tiring.
Mrs Sandy: ———-
Mrs Green: Yes, I suppose you’re right.
a. Can’t his uncle help him to a job in the bank?
b. Oh, I am sorry to hear that.
c. He’s only complaining because he wants some sympathy.
d. That’s only natural. He hasn’t had time yet to get used to the work.
e. What’s the salary like? Is it worth it?
74. Mandy : You’re looking depressed. What’s the matter?
Mandy: Well, it’s only Wednesday today. It will be over by the weekend.
Pete: I certainly hope it will.
a. It’s the weather! I was planning to go camping at the weekend and just look at the rain.
b. Nothing really. I was just wondering what I should do at the weekend.
c. I was just wishing it were Friday today.
d. No. I’m not feeling depressed. I have no reason to.
e. It looks as if I shall have to work overtime for the next month.
75. Martha : Have your read Blake’s review on the play in The Times?
Danny : Yes, I have. And I think it’s most unfair.
Martha : ———-
Danny: Well, that just shows he hasn’t understood the least thing about the play.
a. Of course it was. That’s what one expects of a review by Blake.
b. I have too. It will be interesting to see what other critics say.
c. Well, I don’t know. In my opinion, it’s the best play he’s written to date.
d. Do you really? I don’t know what he really intends to achieve.
e. So do I. His comments on the artificiality of the dialogue in particular are quite unacceptable.
76. Secretary: When can you give me the report for typing?
Ms Hangsman: —–
Secretary: Well; yes, it is, rather.
Ms Hangsman: Then I’ll do my best to get it to you on Thursday.
a. I put it on your desk an hour ago. Haven’t you seen it?
b. How about Friday? Or is that late?
c. It’s not very long, is it?
d. Some time next week. Will that give you plenty of time?
e. The first half is ready. Would you like to make a start with it?
77. Kelly’s been out of the country for nearly a year, so she is out of touch with everything here.
a. Kelly feels quite like a stranger now that she is back after almost a year abroad.
b. A year or so abroad will make Kelly feel different about her own country.
c. On her return after almost a year, Kelly was touched to find so few changes here.
d. The year abroad has estranged Kelly, so she does not want to go back to my own country.
e. It will seem strange to be back home after almost a year abroad.
78. We’d better leave right away as the traffic will be crowded at this time of the day.
a. The sooner they leave, the better if they don’t want to get caught in a traffic jam.
b. We mustn’t leave it too late as the roads are likely to be busy for the next hour.
c. Let’s wait an hour so as to avoid some of the heavy traffic.
d. If we set off now, we will avoid most of the heavy traffic.
e. The roads are busy at this time of day, so we should set off at once.
79. If the others had taken sensible measures like we did, this tragedy need never have happened.
a. Their tiresome behavior meant that we were all inevitably involved in the tragedy.
b. If they had not behaved so foolishly, they would not have involved us, either, in this tragedy.
c. The tragedy is that this could have been avoided if only they had all controlled their emotions.
d. This tragic outcome could have been avoided, but, unlike us, the rest of them behaved rashly.
e. If only they would follow our example and behave in a reasonable manner, all this suffering could be avoided.
80. The harnessing of the wind to generate electricity dates back to 1870, but few notable advances were made until 1960 when energy prices began to rise fast.
a. In 1870 a few efforts were made to generate electricity from wind power, but it was only in 1960 when energy prices rose steeply, that such a scheme was taken seriously.
b. In 1960, when there was a sudden increase in energy prices, efforts were made to harness the power of the wind for the generation of electricity for the first time since 1870.
c. It was in 1870 that the wind was first used to generate electricity, but it was only in 1960 when the energy prices started to rise sharply, that real advances were made.
d. Between 1870 and 1960 various attempts were made to harness the power of the wind as the rising prices of energy made this desirable.
e. Impressive advances in the generation of electricity from wind power coincided with rising energy prices in 1960, but the practice actually dates back to 1870.
82. Pine trees thrive on different types of soils, but well-drained and slightly acid types are more suitable.
a. The ideal soil for pine trees is one that is well-drained and rather acidy; they do not do well in other soils.
b. Although pine trees prefer a well-drained and slightly acid soil, they do well in many other types.
c. Pine trees grow in many different places, but the soil must always be well-drained and fairly acid.
d. The well-drained and rather acid soil that suits pine trees is the most common of all soil types.
e. Pine trees are particular about soil on which they grow and do best on well-drained and slightly acid soil types.