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YDS  Testleri 7

1. I don’t know the scheduled time of …………,however I do know that the plane to Istanbul has already left.
a. purchase
b. customs
c. accommodation
d. reference
e. departure
<E1

2. Parents that understand child behavior are more ………… about their ability to handle difficult situations.
a. familiar
b. watchful
c. confident
d. virtuous
e. forgiving
<C1

3. Even though the new manager has been very strict with us, he is highly ………… by everyone in the company.
a. required
b. respected
c. refused
d. challenged
e. expected
<B1

4. Foods which were ………… seasonal may now be found throughout the year.
a. properly
b. satisfactorily
c. previously
d. rapidly
e. seriously
<C1

5. Jim was an extremely entertaining speaker, so we all enjoyed ………… even more than we had expected to.
a. ourselves
b. us
c. himself
d. themselves
e. them
<A2

6. Alex has told me that one of ………… articles and two of ………… have been accepted for publication in the journal.
a. theirs / her
b. mine / their
c. your / my
d. his / yours
e. hers / ours
<D2

7. Our side won, hoever only because ………… on the other team was playing at all well.
a. some
b. anybody
c. everyone
d. someone
e. nobody
<E2

8. Helen said she would apply for the scholarship after she had completed the teacher training course, …………?
a. would she
b. didn’t she?
c. hadn’t she
d. wasn’t she
e. did she
<B2

9. Several Italian cities are famous for their beautiful gardens many ………… date from the great days of the Italian Renaissance.
a. of whose
b. at which
c. of which
d. in what
e. with whom
<C2

10. I can’t imagine how anybody ………… clever as he is could make ………… a terrible mistake.
a. even / rather
b. so / as
c. enough / as well
d. quite / just
e. as / such
<E2

11. Group work gives pupils a chance to develop the ability to work as part of a team ………… as an individual.
a. rather than
b. even more
c. so much
d. so far
e. moreover
<A2

12. The Parents’ Committee still can’t determine ………… the construction of a new playground really is necessary.
a. despite
b. so as
c. in case
d. whether
e. so that
<D2

13. While we were looking ………… some magazines we happened to find that article ………… butterflies.
a. over / from
b. in / over
c. through / on
d. up / of
e. at / for
<C2

14.Rose ………… to the library; she ………… there every Friday morning.
a. went / was going
b. has gone / goes
c. is going / would go
d. had gone / went
e. was going / is going
<B2

15. I ………… the holiday enormously although the weather ………… disappointing.
a. enjoy / would have been
b. had enjoyed / has been
c. have enjoyed / was being
d. enjoyed / was
e. am enjoying / had been
<D2
16. We ………… once a long time ago however I ………… she will remember me.
a. were meeting / hadn’t thought
b. have met / didn’t think
c. had met / haven’t thought
d. may have met / won’t think
e. met / don’t think
<E2

17. If I ………… how far away the concert hall was, I ………… there by train.
a. realize / have gone
b. have realized / went
c. had realized / would have gone
d. realized / will go
e. will realize / go
<C2

18. The 19th century American novelist Herman Melville ………… many novels, but only one of them ………… a classic, that is Moby Dick.
a. wrote / has become
b. was writing / had become
c. has written / becomes
d. had written / would become
e. would have written / could have become
<A2

19. …………, I think pupils should have some previous knowledge of computers.
a. If it were an essential requirement for the participants
b. Whatever other requirements the organizing committee of the course may demand
c. In case the director had approved the new computer project
d. Until the examination results were officially announced
e. Since the problem related to the computer virus was to be discussed
<B3

20. Could that be the woman …………?
a. as her essays were published in several magazines
b. that she had carried out experiments in physics
c. who represented our school at the International Violin Competition
d. so that we might have discussed her proposals
e. whether her father wanted to stop her from becoming a pop singer
<C3

21. The balance of nature may not be possibly be maintained ………….
a. why people don’t realize just how dangerous the situation is
b. before forest lands were managed efficiently
c. so long as there had been groups of people making quick profits through practices harmful to the environment
d. unless every individual and every organization realizes how important it is to protect our environment
e. since the majority of the world population was worrying about the future
<D3

22. Having tasted the enjoyments of modern city life ………….
a. some of them would have been reluctant to return
b. they found life in their village hard and unattractive
c. they had worked hard to improve their living standards
d. the children will be educated and trained for a special job
e. people don’t realize how lonely they are
<B3

23. Even though there are many young athletes who dream of winning an Olympic gold medal, ………….
a. in competitions he is always under a great strain
b. getting to the top in any field had always required great dedication
c. there are very few who actually manage to do so
d. most of them had been disqualified from taking part in the race
e. they always managed to score high marks in the competitions
<C3

24. As long as the architects’ plans are carried out in full ………….
a. the whole project could have been completed in just under four years
b. other suggestions have been turned down
c. the only problem has apparently been solved in a satisfactory manner
d. the distance between the airport and the city centre has attracted no criticism
e. the new airport will indeed provide everything a visitor could possibly desire
<E3

25. I don’t know for sure, however from the way he talked I inferred that he is very experienced in advertising.
a. Konuşma biçiminden anladığım kadarıyla, reklamcılık bilgisi ve deneyimi çok fazla.
b. Kesin olarak bilmiyorum, ama konuşma biçiminden, reklamcılıkta çok deneyimli olduğunu anladım.
c. Kesin olarak bilmesem de, konuşmasından reklamcılıkta deneyimin çok önemli olduğunu anladım.
d. Reklamcılıkta çok deneyimli olup olmadığını konuşma biçiminden kesin olarak anlayamadım.
e. Reklamcılıkla ilgili olarak söylediklerini duyunca, onun bu konuda çok deneyimli olmadığını anladım.
<B5

26. The sudden increase in the number of novels in the library is directly related to the new director.
a. Kütüphanedeki romanların sayısındaki ani artış, doğrudan doğruya yeni müdürle ilgilidir.
b. Yeni müdürün gelmesi kütüphanedeki roman sayısının artmasına neden olmuştur.
c. Kütüphanedeki romanların sayısındaki hızlı artış, yeni bir müdürün atanmasına bağlanıyor.
d. Yeni müdür geldikten sonra kütüphanedeki romanların sayısında ani bir artış oldu.
e. Kütüphanedeki roman sayısı, yeni müdürün isteği doğrultusunda hızla arttırılmıştır.
<A5

27. So far we haven’t been able to get any reliable information about the extent of the food poisoning on the campus.
a. Kampüsteki gıda zehirlenmesinin boyutları ile ilgili şu anki bilgilerimiz hiç de güvenilir kaynaklardan elde edilmemiştir.
b. Şu ana kadar edindiğimiz bilgiler, kampüsteki gıda gıda zehirlenmesinin gerçek boyutlarını gösterir nitelikte değil.
c. Şu ana kadar elimize, kampüsteki gıda zehirlenmesinin nedenleri ile ilgili güvenilir bilgiler ulaşmamıştır
c. Şu ana kadar, kampüsteki gıda zehirlenmesinin boyutları ile ilgili hiçbir güvenilir bilgi edinemedik.
e. Kampüsteki gıda zehirlenmesinin boyutlarına ilişkin bilgilerimizin hiçbiri yeterince güvenilir değildir.
<D5

28. Unless there is any change, she will present us with a comprehensive report on everything that was discussed in the conference.
a. Konferansta, sunulan raporun kapsamı ile ilgili değişiklikler tartışılacak.
b. Eğer kararını değiştirmezsen, bize sunacağın rapor konferansta tartışılan her konuyu kapsayacak.
c. Bazı değişikliklere karşın, bize sunacağı raporda konferanstaki tartışmaların hepsi kapsamlı olarak bulunmaktadır..
d. Rapordaki değişiklikler konferanstan önce kapsamlı olarak tartışılacak.
e. Bir değişiklik olmazsa, bize konferansta tartışılan her şeyle ilgili kapsamlı bir rapor sunacak.
<E5

29. Even though he was brought to the hospital only a few hours ago, there has been a considerable improvement in his condition.
a. Hastaneye geldikten birkaç saat sonra, durumunda bir düzelme başladığı görüldü.
b. Eğer hastaneye birkaç saat önce getirilseydi, durumunda bir düzelme olabilirdi.
c. Hastaneye yalnızca birkaç saat önce getirilmiş olmasına karşın, durumunda önemli bir düzelme var.
d. Hastaneye ancak birkaç saat önce getirildiği için, şu anda daramanda önemli bir değişiklik yok.
e. Hastaneye geldikten birkaç saat sonra bile durumunda önemli bir iyileşme görülmedi.
<C5

30. Several critics think that his new novel is an excellent contribution to the list of distinctive novels of the last ten years.
a. Çoğu eleştirmen, son on yılın romanları listesinde onun yeni romanının seçkin bir yeri olduğunu düşünüyor.
b. Onun yeni romanının son on yılın en çok satılan romanlar listesine girebileceği, pek çok eleştirmen tarafından kabul ediliyor.
c. Bazı eleştirmenlere göre, onun yeni romanı son on yılın romancılığına mükemmel bir katkıda bulunmuştur.
d. Çoğu eleştirmen, onun yeni romanının son on yılın seçkin romanlar listesine mükemmel bil katkı olduğunu düşünüyor.
e. Pek çok eleştirmen, onun yeni romanının son on yılın seçkin romanları listesinde onun yeni romanı kadar mükemmellinin olmadığına inanıyor.
<D5

31. Bazı tarihçiler, 1980’leri, Batıda yeni bir kültürel değişimin başlangıcı olarak görürler.
a. Some of these historians looked for a new cultural exchange for the West during the 1980s.
b. Some historians consider the 1980s to be the beginning of a new cultural transformation in the West.
c. The cultural scene in the West during the 1980s inspired some of these historians.
d. These historians are starting work on the new cultural transformation that was witnessed in the West in the 1980s.
e. Early in the 1980s some of the historians realized that a cultural transformation was starting to take place in the West.
<B4

32. Yöneticiye yakın birkaç kişi dışında, hiç kimse hangi uzmanlara danışılacağını bilmiyor.
a. Few of the people who are close to the director have any idea about that specialists ought to be consulted.
b. Only those people who had been close to the director knew that specialists would be consulted.
c. Of the people who are close to the director, only a few know the specialists that are to be consulted.
d. No one knows which of the specialists who are to be consulted are actually close to the director.
e. Except for a few people who are close to the director, nobody knows which specialists will be consulted.
<E4

33. Öğretmen, sorulara daha sonra çok zaman kalacağı için, öğrencilerden konuşmasını kesmelerini istemedi.
a. As there is likely to be time for questions later, the teacher told her students not to interrupt his speech.
b. The students interrupted his talk until the teacher told them there would be time later for questions.
c. The teacher didn’t want her students to interrupt his talk, as there would be plenty of time for questions later.
d. The students didn’t know there would be plenty of time for questions later, so they interrupted the teacher’s talk.
e. The teacher didn’t want his students to interrupt her talk, so she gave them plenty of time for questions afterwards.
<C4

34. Bu yüzyılın ilk yarısında aile planlamasının öncülerinden biri olan Helen Keller, kadınları korumak için çok çalıştı.
a. One way in which Helen Keller worked to protect women in the first half of the century was by introducing family planning schemes.
b. One of the pioneers of family planning at the start of this century was Helen Keller and she wanted to protect women.
c. In the early years of this century Helen Keller introduced family planning in an effort to protect women.
d. Helen Keller, who was one of the pioneers of family planning in the first half of this century, worked hard to protect women.
e. Helen Keller’s aim in introducing family planning in the first half of this century was to protect women.
<D4

35. 1960’lerde çoğu İngiliz romancısı, ozanı ve oyun yazarı, toplum üzerinde derin bir etkisi olan siyasal gelişmeler üzerinde öncelikle durmuşlardır.
a. In the 1960s, most British novelists, poets and playwrights focused primarily upon the political developments which had a profound impact on society.
b. Most English novelists, poets and dramatists concentrated on the 1960s and upon the political developments that had so profound an impact upon society.
c. The political developments of the 1960s attracted the attention of most English novelists, poets and playwrights since they had a profound impact upon society.
d. According to most English novelists, poets and playwrights, it was the political developments of the 1960s that had the greatest effect on society.
e. The astounding impact on society of the political developments of the 1960s has attracted the attention of a great many English novelists, poets and dramatists.
<A4

36. Geçen ay bir konferanta Profesör Copper’a, rüzgâr gücünün kömür ve petrolle ticari olarak yarışıp yarışamayacağı soruldu.
a. A month ago at a conference on the commercial possibilities of coal, petrol and wind power, Professor Copper was asked many questions.
b. At last month’s conference Professor Copper wanted to know whether wind power was ever likely to be able to compete commercially with coal and petrol.
c. At a conference last month Professor Copper was asked whether or not wind power would ever be able to compete commercially with coal and petrol.
d. Professor Copper was asked questions at a conference last month about the commercial possibilities of wind power, coal and petrol.
e. Questions concerning the commercial possibilities of wind power replacing coal and petrol were put to Professor Copper at a conference last month.
<C4

49. That’s something you should ask Alex about as he’s the financial expert.
a. Alex is the one you should consult as he specializes in financial matters.
b Alex might be able to help you as he takes an interest in financial matters.
c. If I were you, I’d get Alex’s opinion on it first.
d. Alex is the one to ask; he is responsible for all our financial transactions.
e. Let’s ask Alex He’s very experienced in such matters.
<A10

50. Everybody in our class is doing something at the end-of-term concert, however Mary alone is staying away.
a. At the concert at the end of term, Mary is going to represent our class.
b. No one in our class but Mary is taking part in the end-of-term concert.
c. Everyone in Mary’s class hopes to do something at the end-of-term concert.
d. Mary is the only one in our class who isn’t taking part in the end-of-term concert.
e. The class wants Mary to play in the concert at the end of term, but she won’t.
<D10

51. If I’d known how much they were going to charge at that motel, I’d have stayed somewhere else.
a. The prices were so high at that motel that I decided to find a more reasonable one.
b. This motel is far too expensive, so we’d better go to another one.
c. If only I’d checked the prices of a few motels I could have found a less expensive one.
d. Although I knew this was an expensive motel I didn’t look around for a cheaper one.
e. I didn’t realize just how expensive this motel was, but if I had, I’d have gone elsewhere.
<E10

52. I was extremely annoyed at the way the new boss treated us all, however I tried not to show it.
a. I shouldn’t have let the new boss know just how angry I was at this attitude towards us.
b. I made an effort to hide from the new boss the anger I felt at his treatment of us.
c. I couldn’t help letting the new boss see just how angry he made me with those remarks to us.
d. The new boss treated us all so badly that I couldn’t hide my disgust from him.
e. The new boss behaved towards us so badly that someone just had to let him know how angry we were.
<B10

53. As there was a lot of rain in the spring we are expecting a good fruit harvest this year.
a. There should be an abundance of fruit this year as it rained so much in the spring.
b. Plenty of rain in the spring always produces a good fruit crop later in the year.
c. It rained so heavily all through the springtime that fruit harvest will certainly be affected.
d. This year we can expect a better fruit harvest even though we didn’t have a wet spring.
e. Though it rained often this spring, the fruit trees are yielding plenty of fruit.
<A10

54. It is not only what is in a diet that may be harmful to our health, but also what is missing. The various vitamins, for example, are extremely important if we are to enjoy good health. …………. For example, even a slight lack of vitamin C makes us more likely to catch colds and influenza.
a. Unfortunately, we feel weak when we go without animal products
b. However, experts believe that we should eat more vegetables than meat
c. Different diseases are associated with deficiencies of particular vitamins
d. Children need more protein than vegetables can supply
e. Many people prefer vitamins that are available
<C6

55. Japanese culture places a strong emphasis on mutual help among blood relatives. Thus the proportion of elderly people living with their children is very high when compared with European countries. …………. This is partly due to migration, but also to rising numbers of unmarried older people and childless couples.
a. All efforts, therefore, should be directed to meeting their needs
b. Yet caring for elderly parents can be tiring and depressing
c. In fact, in Japan, the rate of divorce was increasing rapidly
d. In some families, grandmothers take over the child care roles of their daughters
e. This proportion was even higher but has declined steadily since the 1960s
<E6

56. …………. We still rely mainly on rivers, lakes, springs and wells however exploit them more extensively. We have increased the storage of natural lakes by building dams. In this way, we have created new reservoirs to collect water in river valleys.
a. Throughout history man has tried unsuccessfully to gain control over water
b. Dams must be strong enough to resist the great pressure of water
c. Rivers are among the main sources of water, but they are also used for the transportation of goods and people
d. The sources of water today are much the same as they were thousands of years ago
e. Dams are useful to prevent flooding but usually they are very expensive to build
<D6

57. Tutankhamen, who was the pharaoh of Egypt from about 1375 to 1392 BC, died at the early age of 19. He was buried in great splendor in a four-roomed tomb in the Valley of the Kings on the west bank of the Nile near Luxor. …………. Indeed, several people would never have heard his name if his tomb, with its amazing treasures, had not been found.
a. Unfortunately, many people think that the mystery of the tomb will never be solved
b. We know virtually nothing about the life of this king, nor why he died so young
c. For this reason some scholars claim that the tomb was constructed by an earlier civilization
d. All the royal tombs including Tutankhamen’s had been robbed in ancient times
e. In fact, it is very difficult to find a financier for excavation.
<B6

58. The best way to learn is to teach. This is the message emerging from experiments in many schools in which teenage pupils who have problems at school themselves are tutoring younger children. Both sides, it seems, benefit. …………. The older children gain in confidence because their efforts meet with success.
a. After reading aloud in this way they play word games
b. Most of these children are of average intelligence
c. The younger children get individual attention, and this hemps them a lot
d. The children at some primary schools require more help
e. A surprising number of younger children behave badly because they feel inadequate
<C6

59. A friend of yours is very nervous as she is going to be interviewed for a part in a movie You believe in her ability and want to encourage her. So you say to her:
a. You have a real talent for acting. I’m sure they’ll take you on.
b. I know it is going to be very difficult to talk in front of all those people.
c. If I were you I would practice hard. Good luck to you!
d. I hope you will come with the irregular working hours.
e. Promise not to be upset if you don’t get the part.
<A8

60. You are buying many books in a bookshop and think you are being overcharged. You want to draw the shop assistant’s attention to this in as polite a manner as possible; you say:
a. These prices seem to me very reasonable.
b. Don’t you dare do that again!
c. I can’t afford so much. Can I pay in installments?
d. If you go on making such mistakes you will be dismissed.
e. Would you mind checking the receipt? I’m afraid there has been a mistake.
<E8
61. You have been called to an immediate business meeting which means you have to cancel a lunch appointment with a friend. You telephone him to apologize about this and say:
a. By the way, regarding our lunch appointment, let’s make it next week. Now I’m at a meeting.
b. I’m terribly sorry but I can’t meet you for lunch due to an unexpected meeting which I have to attend.
c. There’s a meeting which I want to attend; so can we cancel our lunch?
d. I’d forgotten they’d called a meeting for today. So we can’t have lunch together after all.
e. The meeting that was supposed to be urgent has been cancelled. So I’ll be joining you for lunch.
<B8

62. You’ve decided to purchase a computer but want some advice on what to chose. You phone a friend who is well-informed on computers and say:
a. Are you still selling computers? I’ve decided to buy one.
b. As I’ve made up my mind to get a computer I was wondering what models you sell.
c. Since you’re an expert on computers, and I’m planning to get one, tell me which model you’d recommend.
d. Since you know a lot about computers, can you instruct me on how to operate one?
e. As you are an expert on computers, why do you think this model won’t suit me?
<C8

63. You are very angry with your sister that always leaves the room you share together in a dreadful state and expects you to clean up the mess. You’ve decided to put an end to this and say to her:
a. From now on you are going to do your share of the tidying up.
b. I’m rather busy, but I suppose I can help.
c. I know you are tired of doing both my work and yours.
d. Well, are you sure no one will notice the room?
e. Have you really tidied everything up properly? I’m going to go and check.
<A8

64. You and some of your friends are organizing a picnic. So far lots of people have promised to bring cakes or sweet things, so you are trying to encourage the others to bring something savory. So when you meet Jim and Helen you say to them:
a. As you know everyone is bringing their own food. But we’re buying things to drink from the money we collected.
b. If you want to come on this picnic of ours you must bring food and drink
c. What are you making for the picnic? Let me know when you’ve made up your minds.
d. Have you told your mother about the picnic? She made a lovely fruit cake for us last year.
e. About this picnic of ours, could you bring salads or sandwiches? We don’t need any more people to bring cakes.
<E8

65. Julianne: Have you heard? Pat’s mother is in hospital and has to have an operation.
Brenda: Yes, I know, but it’s a simple operation. Nothing to worry about, I’m told.
Julianne:………….
Brenda: Oh certainly. Any time. In fact, how about this afternoon?
a. No, I’m not worrying. But I don’t think Pat has the same opinion
b. That’s a relief. Pat sounded very worried when I talked to her on the phone
c. Yes, that’s what I heard. But, you see Pat’s the sort who worries unnecessarily
d. Just the same, I think it would be nice if we went round to see Pat sometime
e. No, of course not. After all, Pat’s mother is still quite young and never gets ill
<D9

66. Alex: Congratulations!
Frank: What have I done to deserve your congratulations?
Alex:…………
Frank: Glad you liked it. You mist join us some time when we go climbing.
a. I heard you’ve got the best marks of anyone in the school.
b. Weren’t you on the winning team in last night’s match?
c. Well, there were five of your pictures in the end-of-term exhibition.
d. I understood you’d got the job everyone was applying for.
e. I’ve just read that wonderful article of yours in the school magazine on mountains and mountaineering.
<E9

67. Heidi: What’s your sister doing now? When I last saw her she was looking for a new job.
Andrews: She got one. She’s working at the library now.
Heidi:…………
Andrews: That was true. But now she’s got a job that really suits her and satisfies her
a. Has she had any training for the job?
b. She wouldn’t like that. How long did she stay there?
c. I hope she likes the work. She was clearly very unhappy in her last job.
d. I’ll look out for her next time I go there, which is fairly often.
e. I can’t imagine her in a library! Still I wish her well.
<C9

68. Kelly: What are you going to do in Tunisia?
Milo: Well, I’m going to spend a lot of my time on the beach, but my wife plans to do a lot of shopping.
Kelly: …………
Milo: I suppose so. We usually do.
a. Haven’t you seen the Sahara desert and the Roman ruins yet?
b. Then you’ll be coming with a lot of heavy luggage.
c. They say it is an attractive country especially for those coming from Europe.
d. If you want I will give you a list of the hotels and the restaurants in Tunisia.
e. As far as I know, the weather is very hot at this time of the year.
<B9

69. Floyd: Exams. They’re a stupid waste of time.
Sally: I don’t like them, either. But if we didn’t have them we wouldn’t study so much.
Floyd:……
Sally: I don’t agree with you there at all. I remember most of what I learn.
a. I haven’t noticed that you have got such a good memory
b. Well, if you had been lucky, you would have got the questions you had studied
c. I think you are just making excuses; it’s just that you don’t like studying.
d. When you leave school they want people with practical experience
e. maybe; but we always forget what we’ve learned as soon as the exam is over
<E9

70. Claire: Are you going to the match on Saturday? It’s the semi-finals you know.
Brenda …………
Claire: Why not?
Brenda The stadium will be terribly crowded and I can watch in comfort on the TV at home.
a. In that case I most definitely won’t
b. That sounds like a good idea. I’ll think about it.
c. No, I didn’t know. But I’ll try to be there.
d. Thanks for reminding me. But I don’t think I can be back in time, can I?
e. Can’t we get hold of the others and all go as a group?
<A9

71.
(I) Their advertisement is a clever one.
(II) They start by emphasizing that different people look for different things when choosing a car.
(III) It must have cost them a lot to publish it in so many newspapers.
(IV) Some look for reliability, some for economy and some for comfort.
(V) The company claims to meet all these demands.
a. I
b. II
c. II
d. IV
e. V
<B7

72.
(I) She is one of India’s most famous actresses.
(II) She has won numerous awards in India and has succeeded in Hollywood as well.
(III) She is intent on playing an active role in real life, too.
(IV) Actually, India’s film industry has progressed considerably in recent years.
(V) She has, for instance, worked hard to improve the conditions of refugees and earthquake victims and given generously to them.
a. I
b. II
c. II
d. IV
e. V
<D7

73.
(I) Women in Tokyo enjoy more sporting opportunities than they used to.
(II) Today they can take part in sports that were once restricted to men such as boxing and body building.
(III) However, there is still very little football played among women in Tokyo.
(IV) This is mainly due to their choice of sporting activities which require individual performance.
(V) In other words, throughout history, women have had little interest in sports.
a. I
b. II
c. II
d. IV
e. V
<E7

74.
(I) A pet in the family helps keep people in touch with the more natural, animal world.
(II) This is particularly important for children that are living in big cities.
(III) Because seeing an animal give birth brings understanding of the naturalness of childbirth, or seeing a pet die helps a child to cope with sorrow.
(IV) Unfortunately, several pet owners make the mistake of treating their animals as if they were human beings.
(V) Moreover, when a child cares for a pet, this helps him to grow up into a loving adult who feels responsible for those dependent on him.
a. I
b. II
c. II
d. IV
e. V
<D7

75.
(I) Oil pollution is extremely difficult to control.
(II) Each year billions of tons of oil are poured into the sea.
(III) Unfortunately, several governments are reluctant to take strong measures to protect the environment.
(IV) Some is done deliberately as tankers wash out their tanks.
(V) But much of it is spilled accidentally as tankers collide with other ships.
a. I
b. II
c. II
d. IV
e. V
<B7

1. At the meeting, although he spoke well, he was unable to ______ the other members.
a. compete
b. persuade
c. reinterpret
d. agree
e. dispute
<B1

2. It was understood that the EC had ______ on a program of economic change that the member states could not sustain.
a. surpassed
b. relieved
c. embarked
d. specified
e. retired
<C1

3. One chief aim of the new constitution is to prevent the ______ of power by any majority.
a. misuse
b. compromise
c. completion
d. issue
e. existence
<A1

4. When they called Delaware to head office I’m quite sure it was not their ______ to promote him to branch manager.
a. avidity
b. impression
c. prediction
d. disposition
e. intention
<E1

5. So as to be a leader it is not enough to be hard working and knowledgeable; one must also be able to inspire ______ .
a. denial
b. restraint
c. discretion
d. confidence
e. reservation
<D1

6. People that are constantly in the public eye must learn to remain ______ in the face of criticism.
a. composed
b. resultant
c. appreciated
d. outrageous
e. restored
<A1

7. As the conditions of the expedition are likely to be severe, someone had better take necessary ______ .
a. trials
b. precautions
c. efforts
d. objections
e. attempts
<B1

8. Jim has behaved ______ on many occasions so this instance of impoliteness is hardly surprising.
a. shyly
b. endearingly
c. sensitively
d. readily
e. inconsiderately
<E1

9. A child that is allowed to explore and find things out for ______ soon develops self-confidence.
a. themselves
b. him
c. each other
d. himself
e. one another
<D2

10. Apparently both countries are seeking a face saving compromise, however it is unlikely that ______ will ever again gain the confidence of the world.
a. each
b. neither
c. either
d. the other
e. the rest
<C2

11. Several children are able to walk ______ holding on to anything when they are fifteen months old.
a. for
b. from
c. with
d. without
e. to
<D2

12. ______ any strange thing in the condition of the patient, be sure that the nurse in charge is informed.
a. In the event of
b. However slight
c. With the exception of
d. Owing to
e. In favor of
<A2

13. ______ the time a child reaches school age Alex ought to be able to dress himself fairly quickly.
a. On
b. For
c. In
d. At
e. By
<E2

14.We finally learned what had happened ______ the nurse was wheeling him into the operating room.
a. in case
b. so that
c. just as
d. during
e. as soon as
<C2

15. Probably Susan and Jim didn’t ______ appreciate the risks involved in entering the competitive world of automobile manufacture.
a. too
b. quite
c. more
d. so
e. as
<B2

16. For a while Matisse fell under the influence of Klimt and, later, under ______ of Cezanne.
a. these
b. those
c. some
d. much
e. that
<E2

17. Living conditions in a poor village are obviously unhygienic, ______ life in a sophisticated city is also potentially hazardous.
a. since
b. but
c. as
d. moreover
e. even though
<B2

18. The new Manager is generally regarded as ______ effective leaders the country has had in decades.
a. another
b. the most
c. the other
d. one of the most
e. more than
<D2

19. Helen Keller will go far in the film world since she has a remarkable talent for ______ even the most conflicting emotions.
a. depicting
b. having depicted
c. being depicted
d. depict
e. having been depicted
<A2

20. Today coffee prices are far below the required rate; thus, growers are unable to pay their debts and cooperatives find it hard ______ .
a. surviving
b. survive
c. to survive
d. survived
e. to have survived
<C2

21. For many years now she ______ as private secretary to the bank manager.
a. has been working
b. worked
c. was working
d. works
e. used to work
<A2

22. When they heard a gun fire across the border, relief labors in the camp knew that another group of refugees ______ before long.
a. are arriving
b. had arrived
c. will arrive
d. would be arriving
e. could have arrived
<D2

23. Last week’s supplementary budget package ______ to prevent English’s economy from plunging even lower.
a. is being designed
b. has designed
c. was designed
d. would be designed
e. had designed
<C2

24. In certain quarters it is felt that the minister ______ the political stature that he needs to recast the country’s economic policy.
a. was losing
b. may have lost
c. would have lost
d. had lost
e. lost
<B2

25. Even the chief worker was impressed at the speed and efficiency …………… .
a. until more problems have appeared.
b. that the project will be finished on time
c. whether the workers were prepared to go on strike
d. although some of the members had been warned earlier
e. with which the team worked
<E3

26. The doctor was so kind and frank ………….. .
a. before the surgery is carried out
b. if I should decide to go through with the operation
c. that all my misgivings vanished
d. when it is obvious that the patient has recovered greatly
e. as soon as I am discharged from hospital
<C3

27. …………., the response of the East divided world viewpoint.
a. As soon as the NATO countries have formulated an effective policy
b. Unless Iraq is severely punished for its aggression
c. No matter how the board is constituted
d. As was to be expected
e. When the oil-producing countries gather in Vienna to discuss
<D3

28. Do not attempt to cut down or prune large trees in the forest………….. .
a. just as branches that appeared healthy had in fact been rotten inside
b. unless you are absolutely confident that you can do it properly
c. by making sure that your neighbors were not opposed to it at all
d. if the weather conditions had not been taken into account
e. in case the manager rejected the findings
<B3

29. Unless we get enough rain soon, ………….. .
a. the price of fruit this year has been very reasonable
b. a great deal of land is still under water
c. the rainy season came late this year
d. they have already put away their winter clothes
e. the harvest this year will be a poor one
<E3

30. ………… that will further aggravate the unemployment problem.
a. Several companies are considering reductions in the work force
b. No solutions were forthcoming
c. Everyone was genuinely concerned about the situation
d. The minister had been under attack for some time
e. The police should have combed the area for the person responsible
<A3
31. ……….. before the town planners took their task seriously.
a. City planning has continued to be their prime concern
b. A great many ugly apartment blocks were built
c. A good architect views his work within the context of the area at large
d. In this respect new cities are at a great advantage
e. New cities never have the same atmosphere as the old
<B3

32. ……….. how close Jim had been to winning the election.
a. To be perfectly honest I was considerably relieved
b. It shouldn’t have been misinterpreted
c. Even his own supporters were surprised when they learned
d. The votes had finally been counted
e. He should have withdrawn from the election campaign
<C3

33. If this treatment does not achieve the desired impact, there are other methods we can use.
a. Bu tedavi tam olarak başarılı olmadığı takdirde, deneyebileceğimiz başka yöntemler de vardır.
b. Bu tedavi ile beklenen sonuç elde edilemezse, başka yöntemleri denemek zorunda kalabiliriz.
c. Başka yöntemlerin kullanılması bu tedavinin istenilen sonucu verip vermemesine bağlıdır.
d. Bu tedavi arzu edilen etkiyi sağlamazsa, kullanabileceğimiz başka yöntemler vardır.
e. Bu yöntemle ulaşılan sonuç beğenilmezse, diğer yöntemleri kullanmamız gerekir.
<D5

34. No matter what anybody says, I shall give him the punishment he deserves.
a. Herkesin karşı olmasına rağmen, o, vereceğim cezayı hak etmiştir.
b. Kim ne derse desin, ona hak ettiği cezayı vereceğim.
c. Ona hak ettiği cezayı vereceğimden hiç kimsenin şüphesi olmasın.
d. Herkesin dediği gibi, o, benden hak ettiği cezayı alacak.
e. Ona hak ettiği cezayı vermeyeceğimi hiç kimse söyleyemez.
<B5

35. The new Prime Minister is seriously worried about the housing problem in the over-populated regions.
a. Yeni Başbakan, nüfusu yoğun olan bölgelerdeki konut sorununun ciddi bir çalışma gerektirdiğine inanmaktadır.
b. Nüfus yoğunluğu fazla olan bölgelerin konut sorunu ile yeni atanan Başbakan ilgilenmektedir.
c. Yeni Başbakan,nüfus artışının hızlı olduğu bölgelerdeki konut sorununun ciddiyetini kavramıştır.
d. Yeni Başbakan, aşırı nüfusa sahip bölgelerdeki konut sorunundan ciddi şekilde endişe duymaktadır.
e. Konut sorunu, en çok nüfusu yoğun olan bölgelerde olup, yeni Başbakanı olrukça düşündürmektedir.
<D5

36. The recent currency crisis that has shaken Europe constitutes a serious threat to the very existence of the European Community.
a. Avrupa’yı sarsan son para krizi, bizzat Avrupa Topluluğu’nun varlığı için ciddi bir tehdit oluşturmaktadır.
b. Avrupa Topluluğu’nun varlığını tehdit eden en ciddi olay, Avrupa’yı sarsan son para krizidir.
c. Avrupa’da patlak veren son para krizi Avrupa Topluluğu’nun varlığına karşı bir tepkidir.
d. Avrupa’yı tehdit eden son para krizi, Avrupa Topluluğu’nun varlığına bir darbedir.
e. Avrupa Topluluğu’nun varlığını tehlikeye düşüren en son olay, Avrupa’yı saran para krizidir.
<A5

37. The failure of ambitious development programs in several Third World countries has inevitably led to a search for reasons.
a. Pek çok Üçüncü Dünya ülkesinde, yeterli araştırma yapılmadan başlatılan idialı gelişme programları kaçınılmaz olarak başarısızlığa uğramıştır.
b. Birçok Üçüncü Dünya ülkesinde, uygulanan gelişme programlarının başarısızlığa yol açan nedenler iyice araştırılmaktadır.
c. Üçüncü Dünya ülkelerinin çoğu, önemli gelişme programlarının başarısızlığa uğramasının nedenlerini araştırmalıdır.
d. Üçüncü Dünya ülkelerinin çoğunda, iddialı gelişme programları kaçınılmaz olarak başarısızlığa uğramıştır.
e. Birçok Üçüncü Dünya ülkesinde iddialı gelişme programlarının başarısızlığa uğraması, kaçınılmaz olarak bir neden arayışına yol açmıştır.
<E5

38. That scheme would allow 2,000 young Albanians to emigrate to each of the 25 developed countries currently providing direct aid.
a. Bu plan, 25 gelişmiş ülkeye göç etmek isteyen 2000 Arnavut gencine doğrudan yardım sağlanmasını öngörüyor.
b. Bu plana göre, şu anda doğrudan yardımda bulunan 25 gelişmiş ülkenin katkısıyla 2000 genç Arnavut’a iş imkanı sağlanacak.
c. Bu plan çerçevesinde, 25 gelişmiş ülkenin her birine göç etmiş olan 2000 Arnavut’a hemen doğrudan yardım sağlanacak.
d. Bu plan, 25 gelişmiş ülkenin her birine göç izni olan 2000 Arnavut gencine doğrudan yardımı öngörüyor.
e. Bu plan, şu anda doğrudan yardım yapan 25 gelişmiş ülkenin her birine 2000 genç Arnavut’un göç etmesini sağlayacak.
<E5

39. Aid is most effective when it is distributed by local nongovernmental organizations, which can better assess a society’s needs.
a. Hükümet dışı yerel kuruluşlardan gelen yardımın, bölgedeki ihtiyaçlar kesin olarak belirlendikten sonra dağıtılması yararlı olur.
b. Bir topluluğun ihtiyaçlarının en iyi biçimde karşılanabilmesi için dağıtım görevi hükümetten bağımsız yerel kuruluşlara verilmelidir.
c. Bir bölgenin ihtiyaçlarını en iyi bilen, hükümetten bağımsız yerel kuruluşlar hangileriyse, yardımı onların dağıtması yerinde olur.
d. Yardım, bir topluluğun ihtiyaçlarını daha iyi değerlendirebilen hükümet dışı yerel kuruluşlar tarafından dağıtıldığı takdirde en etkili olur.
e. Hükümet dışı yerel kuruluşlardan gelen yardımın en etkili dağıtımı, toplumun ihtiyaçlarını daha iyi bilmekle mümkündür.
<D5

40. Because it was not her father’s style to let on about his personal problems, Helen probably didn’t know that he was suffering.
a. Kişisel sorunlarını açığa vurmak babasının tarzı olmadığından, Helen belki de onun acı çektiğini bilmiyordu.
b. Helen babasının kişisel sorunlarıyla ilgilenmediğinden, belki onun acı çektiğinin farkında değildi.
c. Babasının sorunlarıyla ilgilenme alışkanlığında olmayan Helen belki onun çektiği sıkıntılardan da habersizdi.
d. Helen ‘nin babası, kişisel sorunlarını kendisine saklamak alışkanlığının başkalarına acı çektirdiğini belki de bilmiyordu.
e. Kişisel sorunlarını açığa vurmak Helen’nin tarzı olmadığından, acı çektiğini babasına nasıl anlatacağını da belki bilmiyordu.
<A5

41. The commentators expressed their concern that Spain’s economic problems would force the Central Bank to maintain high interest rates.
a. İspanya’nın ekonomik sorunları ile ilgili endişelerini dile getiren yorumcular, Merkez Bankasının faiz oranlarını yükseltmesinin kaçınılmaz olduğunu belirttiler.
b. İspanya’nın ekonomik sorunlarıyla ilgilenen yorumcular, Merkez Bankasının yüksek faiz oranlarını korumak zorunda olduğunu söylediler.
c. İspanya’nın ekonomik sorunlarının ağırlaştığını ifade eden yorumcular, Merkez Bankasının faiz oranlarını yükseltmesinin zorunlu olduğunu belirttiler.
d. İspanya’nın ekonomik sorunlarının endişe verici bir duruma geldiğini belirten yorumcular, Merkez Bankasının yüksek faiz oranlarını korumasının zor olacağını söylediler.
e. Yorumcular, İspanya’nın ekonomik sorunları ile ilgili endişelerini dile getiren yorumcular, Merkez Bankasının faiz oranlarını yükseltmesinin kaçınılmaz olduğunu belirttiler.
<E5

42. Whatever measures the Government may take to encourage economic growth, there is bound to be opposition in certain quarters.
a. Bazı çevrelerin muhalefetine rağmen, Hükümet iktisadi büyümeyi hızlandırmak için bir dizi önlem aldı.
b. İktisadi büyümeyi teşvik için Hükümet hangi önlemleri alırsa alsın, bazı çevrelerin muhalefet edeceği kesindir.
c. İktisadi büyüme için Hükümetin aldığı çeşitli önlemler, bazı çevrelerin muhalefeti ile karşılaştı.
d. İktisadi büyümeyi sağlayabilmek için Hükümet tarafından alınan kararlar, muhalefetin tepkisini çekti.
e. Hükümetin uygulamaya koyduğu kararlar bir yandan iktisadi büyümeyi artırırken diğer yandan muhalefetin tepki göstermesine yol açtı.
<B5

43. Yeryüzünde kaç tür canlı organizmanın yaşadığını hiç kimse bilmiyor.
a. Nobody knows how many species of living organisms inhabit the earth.
b. Everybody realizes that the world is inhabited by countless species of living organisms.
c. Nobody knows how the world came to be inhabited by so many species of living organisms.
d. Nobody knows how so many species of living organisms came to inhabit the world.
e. How many species of living organisms have lived in the world will never be known.
<A4

44. Yüksek fırınlarda işlenen demir cevheri nadir olarak %65’ten fazla demir ihtiva eder ve bazen bu oran %20’ye kadar düşebilir.
a. In a blast furnace, the only iron ore to be smelted is that which contains between 20% and 65% iron.
b. The percentage of iron in the ore smelted in blast furnaces varies between 20% and 65%.
c. The iron ore smelted in blast furnaces rarely has an iron content of more than 65% or less than 20%.
d. The iron ore smelted in blast furnaces rarely contains more than 65% iron and sometimes the proportion may come down to 20%.
e. After smelting in a blast furnace the percentage of iron in any ore rarely exceeds 65% or drops lower tan 20%.
<D4

45. Hepimiz, hızla yok edilmekte olan tropikal ormanların geleceğinden çok ciddi olarak endişe duymaktayız.
a. The rapid destruction of the tropical forests will soon seriously concern us all.
b. We are all very seriously concerned about the future of the tropical forests which are being rapidly destroyed.
c. With the rapid destruction of the tropical forests we are all very worried about our future.
d. In future time , if the tropical forests are destroyed so recklessly, we will obviously be worried.
e. One of the most serious worried about the future concerns what is to happen to the tropical forests.
<B4
46. Hızlı nüfus artışı gözönüne alındığında, önümüzdeki yıllarda ülkenin pek çok yöresinde yeni konutlar için sürekli ve artan bir talep olacağı açıktır.
a. The rapid rate of population growth in recent years throughout the country means that new housing schemes are in constant and increasing demand,unfortunately.
b. Due to the rapid growth in the population, in recent years there is sure to be a continual demand for more houses throughout the country.
c. The demand for new housing schemes seems likely to spread to other parts of the country in the immediate future owing to the rapid and continual growth of the population.
d. There will be constant demands in the future for new housing schemes throughout the country as the population continues to grow at a rapid pace.
e. In view of the rapid population growth, it is obvious that during the years ahead there will be a continuing and increasing demand for new housing in most parts of the country.
<E4

47.20. Yüzyıldan önce, İngiltere’den başka, nüfusunun çoğunluğu şehirlerde yaşayan tek ülke İspanya idi.
a. At the turn of the twentieth century, the majority of the population of, first Britain, when Spain , were living in towns.
b. Spain and Britain were the only other countries to have a majority of the population living in towns prior to the twentieth century.
c. Spain was the only other country, besides Britain, to have a majority of its population living in towns before the twentieth century.
d. By the turn of the twentieth century, the majority of the population of Britain, then of another country, Spain, were living in urban areas.
e. Except for Britain and Spain, there were no countries with a predominantly urban population before the twentieth century.
<C4

49. Sanayi ve Ticaret Bakanı gazetecilere bilgisayar alanında yatırım yapılması için yeni teşvikler verileceğini söyledi.
a. Journalists were told that the Minister of Trade and Industry is encouraging people to invest in computers.
b. The Minister of Trade and Industry has told journalists that new incentives will be given to invest in computers.
c. Journalists were advised not to discuss the topic of computers. investments with the Minister of Trade and Industry.
d. The Minister of Trade and Industry discussed ways of encouraging people to invest in computers.with some journalists.
e. The need for computers investments was the main topic when the Minister of Trade and Industry met the journalists.
<B4

50. Rapor, Asya’da açlıkla savaşmak için Birleşmiş Milletlerce kabul edilen uluslararası işbirliği politikalarını ele almaktadır.
a. According to the report, the United Nations is waging war against famine in Asia in accordance with policies of international cooperation.
b. The report deals with the need of the United Nations to adopt policies of international cooperation to fight famine in Asia.
c. The report deals with the policies of international cooperation adopted by the United Nations to fight famine in Asia
d. The report suggests ways by which the United Nations could wage war on the famine in Asia in line with the policies of international cooperation.
e. If there were more international cooperation it would be easier to overcome the famine in Asia in line with the policies of international cooperation adopted by the United Nations.
<C4

51. Afrika ülkelerinin çoğunda, özellikle Nepal’de kızamık en ağır çocukluk dönemi enfeksiyonu olarak kabul edilmektedir.
a. Measles is generally regarded as one of the most dangerous illnesses, particularly among children in Nepal and elsewhere in Africa.
b. In many of the countries in Africa, particularly in Nepal, measles is regarded as the most acute childhood infection.
c. In the African state of Nepal it is generally agreed that measles is the worst of the childhood ailments.
d. In Africa, Nepal excepted, measles is recognized as the infection that endangers most children.
e. The incidence of measles in childhood in Nepal and elsewhere in Africa is exceedingly high.
<B4

52. Amerika, Bosna’da daha fazla kan dökülmesini önlemek için uluslar arası kuruluşların harekete geçirilmesinde etkin bir rol oynamıştır.
a. America has played an active part in the mobilization of international organizations to prevent further bloodshed in Bosnia.
b. To prevent further bloodshed in Bosnia, America should urge various international organizations to interfere.
c. The interference of various international organizations in Bosnia, mobilized by America, has helped to prevent further bloodshed.
d. Further bloodshed occurred in Bosnia despite the efforts made by America and various international organizations to prevent it.
e. The role America played in mobilizing various international organizations to prevent further bloodshed in Bosnia had positive results.
<A4

53. Bacteria are minute, single-celled organisms of variable shape and activity. Along with the viruses, they are classified as the lowest forms of plant life. Bacteria are everywhere-in soil, water, dust, and in air. __________ . Some turn decaying vegetable matter into manure; others; within the human or animal body, assist in the development of some vitamins vital to health.
a. There are still many bacteria whose size and shape are not known yet
b. Food poising is also caused by various kinds of bacteria
c. A high-powered microscope is needed to detect bacteria in some substances
d. Under hygienic circumstances no bacterial activity takes place
e. There are thousands of different types and many perform useful functions
<E6

54. Vegetables eaten freshly cooked are safe. They might be contaminated after cooking or be subject to spore germination and outgrowth if cooled slowly and stored warm. Salad vegetables, lettuce, tomatoes, radishes, cucumber and watercress should be washed in water for not less than 40 seconds. ________ .
a. In some restaurants a great variety of salad is served
b. Some people are not fond of vegetables at all
c. Water pollution is a serious danger that threatens the world
d. This is especially important in countries where crops are sometimes flooded with water polluted with human and animal sewage
e. As a result of easy transportation and good packaging, tropical vegetables are distributed worldwide
<D6

55. __________ . Never has a statement made anywhere been meant more literally. Without energy, nothing could walk, fly, prowl, dive, swim, chew, hiss, bark, or grow. Einstein showed that even matter is a form of energy. It should be clear, then, why energy is central to one of the cardinal principles of ecology.
a. The significance of energy to human beings is often overestimated
b. Without energy there would be nothing
c. The energy problem has been the main concern of many governments
d. The energy sources of the world are constantly being wasted
e. The committee has decided the new energy policy for the decade ahead
<B6

56. Even the smallest organization, public or private, has a personnel function. People are an organization’s main resource and, even though the links between the personnel department and other departments are not always obvious, it is significant that cooperation between all departments and personnel is maintained. It is the personnel department, with the help of the other departments, which will implement any manpower policies by recruiting, selecting and training all employees. __________ .
a. This shows that personnel departments carry out crucial functions in organizations
b. That is why institutions will be forced to make huge investments
c. Certainly, some functions such as research or legal advice are carried out by different staff
d. In fact, no government agency would have been involved in such a case
e. Initially, each department was required to submit their proposals for improvement
<A6

57. People will exchange any goods or services for money: this is its most significant function. In order to be a medium of exchange, money must be acceptable: __________ . Initially, this confidence was created by using metals like gold and silver which in themselves were valuable. The coins, notes and cheques which are used as money today are not in themselves worth what they represent. Nontheless, they are accepted by everyone in business transactions.
a. this primitive method of exchange is no longer used
b. therefore, it plays a vital role in international trade
c. that is it must enjoy everyone’s confidence
d. the creation of money made business transactions much easier
e. money provides a standard measurement in business
<C6

58. __________ . There is, for example, and obvious relationship between increases in economic wealth and general improvements in our life styles. The extent of the interrelationship between social and economic change means that many business organizations are affected by changes in society.
a. The nature of family life is constantly changing
b. Most forms of social change are related to economic change
c. New economic policies adopted by the government give priority to economic growth
d. Successive governments have tried to solve the problems resulting from economic change
e. Population growth has a damaging effect on economic recovery
<B6

59.
(I) It is the accuracy of laser surgery that makes it so efficient.
(II) The laser beam can also remove bone that makes it invaluable in ear surgery.
III) This accuracy can be increased by sending the beam along fibres of glass finer than a human hair.
(IV) These can carry a beam around corners and direct it precisely at a tiny area.
(V) Hence there is virtually no risk of damaging healthy cells.
a. I
b. II
c. III
d. IV
e. V
<B7

60.
(I) Correct tyre pressure is more significant than many people realize.
(II) The right pressure opens up the tread so its edges grip the road.
(III) In wet weather this is obviously of prime importance.
(IV) The spare tyre should also be checked occasionally to make sure it is fit for use.
(V) But even when the weather is dry, tyre pressure should be checked and adjusted regularly.
a. I
b. II
c. III
d. IV
e. V
<D7
61.
(I) Modern theory envisages that the Sun and Solar System evolved from a primitive nebula.
(II) About 4,5 billion years ago, for reasons unknown, this nebula began to contract.
(III) In the outer regions temperatures remained even lower.
(IV) The rotation then speeded up, causing the cloud to flatten into a disk.
(V) In the densest part of that disk a proto-sun formed.
a. I
b. II
c. III
d. IV
e. V
<C7

62.
(I) Written communication is the basis of much communication in the business world.
(II) Letter writing, but has gone into a decline since the appearance of the telephone.
(III) It includes letters, reports, memoranda and telex messages.
(IV) It has the disadvantage of being slower than oral communication.
(V) However it has the great advantage of providing a record of transactions so that disagreements can be avoided and accuracy checked.
a. I
b. II
c. III
d. IV
e. V
<B7

63.
(I) Most children, from time to time, show aggressive tendencies.
(II) This is completely normal, and should be regarded as so.
III) In fact, children should be encouraged to express their aggression fully through creative activities and exploration.
(IV) For that, a safe, suitable background must be provided.
(V) Actually, more accidents occur indoors than they do outdoors.
a. I
b. II
c. III
d. IV
e. V
<E7

64.
(I) There are many reasons why conventional medicine distrusts the practitioners of alternative medicine.
(II) Herbalists believe they can cure a wide range of conditions with plant substances alone.
(III) These people like to look beyond the urgent symptoms to the body’s total state.
(IV) They aim to restore health by helping the body to heal itself.
(V) Their skill lies in knowing which plants are beneficial in which circumstances.
a. I
b. II
c. III
d. IV
e. V
<A7

65. You want to encourage a friend that is lonely and alone to do unpaid work at a local orphanage. You say:
a. The orphanage on the other side of town is advertising for helpers and they pay well.
b. You’re right. It can be rather depressing working in an orphanage.
c. You’re good with children. You’ll soon get involved with the orphanage children and they’ll be like a family for you.
d. You’ll find the job very tiring and I don’t think you’re fit enough to do it.
e. My daughter hopes to work in an orphanage when she has taken her degree.
<C8

66. A friend of yours has asked for your honest point of view about somebody you know to be a cheat and from every point of view unreliable and unpleasant. You answer bluntly:
a. I know nothing against him but I know nothing in his favor either.
b. From what I know of him he’s a most undesirable character and can’t be trusted an inch.
c. I’ve only met him once or twice; so I don’t feel I can say anything about him.
d. He’s not my type, but I know nothing personal against him.
e. A lot of people don’t like him; but perhaps they are jealous of him. He’s awfully rich you know.
<B8

67. A friend has been suffering from backache for many months but keeps putting off seeing a doctor. You determined that the time has come to force him to seek medical advice. You say:
a. You know as well as I do that it could be serious. And if it is serious the sooner you start treatment the better.
b. Never mind. I expect it’s nothing serious and will pass with time.
c. Stop making such a fuss. Everybody has the odd pain.
d. If you take a couple of pain-killers every night it will help you sleep.
e. Do stop worrying! The doctor said there was nothing seriously wrong. Why don’t you believe him?
<A8

68. You want to encourage a young colleague that is rather lacking in confidence to apply for a scholarship. You say:
a. They are not even considering applications from your university. It’s time you faced the fact that you are not up-to-standard for an academic career.
b. Lots of people have already applied, so you don’t stand much chance.
c. If you had worked a bit harder you might have stood a chance.
d. It seems to me you’ve got all the right qualifications. Why don’t you apply? If you aren’t accepted there’s no harm done.
e. If you ask me, it would just be a waste of time for you to apply however if you want to do.
<D8

69. Somebody has come to visit you in your office and seems prepared to waste your whole morning. You decide to send him away, however without being unkind. You say:
a. Do come and see me this morning as I have nothing to do in the office.
b. We have been discussing the proposals made by the study group, and it is very nice of you to join us.
c. Let’s continue this conversation at another time. I’ve got an important meeting scheduled for this afternoon, and need to go over the main points in the agenda.
d. It has been such a long time since I saw you last; tell me what you have been doing all this time.
e. I haven’t seen anything of your brother for months. What is he doing?
<C8

70. At an interview for a new job you are asked why you want to leave your present job. You want to make a good considerable impression and say:
a. I must say I am puzzled by the unemployment figures issued this morning.
b. I know many people are looking for new jobs; I am fortunate as I have already got a very good one.
c. The people at the place where I work are very sociable, and I would hate to give up my job.
d. I find my present job too simple and tedious. I want an opportunity to demonstrate my creativity.
e. It seems you are going to interview lots of people, and will take much time.
<D8

71. Alex: Who are you going to promote? Pat?
Jason: I really haven’t decided yet, but I think it will be her.
Alex:: ________________
Jason:: Yes, you are right; she does.
a. Get someone from outside.
b. She is a nice person, isn’t she?
c. Well, she deserves it, doesn’t she?
d. Pat really doesn’t have enough experience.
e. I hardly know what she really does.
<C9

72.
RoseYou won’t give the order to Rowland, will you?
Christine: No. Certainly not.
Rose: _________________ . The last job they did for us was most unsatisfactory.
a. Why do you say that?
b. I’m glad to hear you say that.
c. Why are you so definite about it?
d. They’re not a bad firm, you know.
e. Why do you insist on them, then?
<B9

73.
Ronaldo: Even if the funds are only sufficient for one bridge, I still think it should be here.
Steven: ________________ .
Ronaldo: True. But nothing has ever been done for the villages in this area. We can’t go on ignoring them.
a. For geological reasons, this is the obvious site.
b. Fine. Then let’s make out a report to that effect.
c. Very well, when shall we start work on it?
d. If we start straight away we may finish before the spring rains come.
e. Why? More people would benefit from a bridge lower down in the valley.
<E9

74.
Mr. Copper : Why are you so annoyed with Helen?
Miss Armano: _______________ .
Mr. Copper : Well, that’s typical, I’ve never known her not leave early!
a. Quite simply, she thinks she knows everything.
b. Take a look at the letters she has typed and you’ll understand.
c. For one thing, I don’t like the way she dresses.
d. She left early again today even though I specifically asked her not to.
e. I’m disappointed in her. Perhaps she’ll improve presently.
<D9

75.
Sally: How’s work going with your house?
Alexia: Rather slowly, I’m afraid. _________________ .
Sally : But they’re doing a good job for you.
Alexia: Oh yes. They really are.
a. I don’t think we’ll be able to move in for another 3 months.
b. The workmen don’t seem to know what they’re doing.
c. The kitchen has already been done.
d. And Jane is very disappointed with what they’ve done to her kitchen.
e. And the quality of the work isn’t very good.
<A9
76.
Bobby : ________________ .
Sultano : Yes, she is. In fact, she has to.
Bobby : Why? Is the operation a difficult one?
Sultano: Well, that sort of operation can best be performed there.
a. Does Miss Marsden really need further treatment?
b. Has Miss Marsden been your patient for long?
c. I hear your patient Miss Marsden, is going to Switzerland for the operation.
d. That patient of yours has phoned to make another appointment to see you.
e. Is she the kind of nurse you have been looking for?
<C9

77. Clearly, concessions will have to be made on both sides if an agreement is to be reached.
a. Allowances will have to be made on both sides if they fail to reach an agreement.
b. If either side shows positive signs of giving way, the resulting agreement will not be in their favor.
c. Both sides have admitted that they are not willing to make any concessions.
d. Obviously there can only be an agreement so long as both sides are willing to give way over something.
e. Before coming to an agreement, both sides will have to discuss any concessions they may consider making.
<D10

78. The directors of the firm have agreed to an alteration in policy; it’s up to us to implement it.
a. The task of putting into effect the policy changes agreed to by the firm’s directors is ours.
b. Having agreed to a change in policy, we must force the directors of the firm to implement it.
c. The firm’s directors realize that the change in policy will be difficult to implement.
d. The directors of the firm have decided to give the task of implementing the change in policy to us.
e. Any change in policy on the part of the firm’s directors requires our approval before it can be implemented.
<A10

79. Several countries share the view that drastic measures must be taken to stop the pollution of the seas.
a. The pollution of the seas can only be prevented provided that many countries follow the same policy.
b. By putting into practice a series of precautions it is generally believed that the pollution of the seas will be prevented.
c. Owing to the pollution of the seas, many countries find it necessary to develop new strategies.
d. The seas will, it seems, continue to be polluted unless this agreement is accepted by a majority of the countries.
e. A lot of countries agree that it is essential to take strong action to put an end to the pollution of the seas.
<E10

80. Within a few months of winning the election his leadership skills were put to the test.
a. His election confirmed that the country recognized him as their leader.
b. Shortly after he was elected he had to prove that he really could be a leader.
c. Having shown his ability to lead he won the election a couple of months later.
d. It wasn’t until after he had been elected that they realized he was a gifted leader.
e. A few months later he came out well ahead of the others in the elections.
<B10

81. You had better get some professional advice if you’re thinking about changing the system radically.
a. My professional advice to you is to avoid any major changes in the system.
b. Don’t make any radical changes in the scheme; that’s my advice to you.
c. It would be very unprofessional behavior if you were to make any major changes in the system.
d. If you’re considering major alterations in procedures, I suggest you consult an expert.
e. Without consulting an expert you were ill advised to introduce any major changes to the system.
<D10

82. The East’s main response to events in Yugoslavia has been to avoid any direct involvement.
a. The East could have responded to the situation in Yugoslavia with a policy of active involvement.
b. The involvement of the East in Yugoslavia was in response to certain major events.
c. Direct intervention was the response of the East to happenings in Yugoslavia.
d. In the main the response of the East to the situation in Yugoslavia was unavoidable.
e. By and large the East has been reluctant to commit itself actively to affairs in Yugoslavia.
<E10

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