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YDS  Testleri 8

1. The science of computers and the technology of their use are extensive and complicated subjects. ____. As a result, as in other similar fields so in computer sciences, there is a great variety of terminology and jargon.
A) Even children in primary schools now learn to use computers
B) Obviously there are several types of computers which would serve this particular
purpose adequately
C) The languages the computer understands are easily understood by even ordinary
people
D) One recent development is that computers are getting smaller and smaller
E) Moreover, the rapid rate of change in this field has contributed still further to this
complexity
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2. ____. The feudal lords in England had always run their own law courts and profited by
the fines paid by those brought to court. However, King Edward took many cases out of their
courts and tried them in his own, taking the money for himself.
A) King Edward always had the full support of the feudal lords
B) The administration of justice in Medieval England was completely centralized
C) King Edward, who lived in the 13th century, was unpopular mainly because he was
greedy
D) Medieval economy in England was based on agriculture
E) The history of the British Parliament goes back to the signing of Magna Carta
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3. The foremost power of the media lies in the fact that it can shape what we know about the
world and can be a basic source of ideas and opinions. _____________.This power is greater if we
consider all the various media together, not just one, such as the press.
A) The most influential media is obviously television
B) Indeed it can influence the way we think, but more than we realize
C) Journalists are jealous of the power of television
D) In recent decades the main concern of the media has been democracy
E) Most governments ignore the influence of the media on society
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4. All considered, the United States has the world’s most competent overall economy. —–.
This increase in efficiency has in part been made possible by the fact that this sector is
less heavily unionized than the manufacturing sector.
A) Unfortunately many American car manufacturers have lost a sizeable share of the
world market
B) In fact Japan has become one of the biggest exporters of high-tech goods
C) Many American steel plants have entered a period of recession
D) Europe, however, has been making itself more efficient in the services industry
E) Competition from Germany is a danger both to Japan and the US
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1. There are no less than 120 countries comprising the so-called “third world” known
variously as “less developed” or “underdeveloped” or poor countries. There is a great
diversity among them, and yet they have a number of features in common._____. For
example, some of the oil-producing countries have achieved very high levels of income
per capital while retaining many of the other characteristics of less developed countries.
A) Their natural sources are so limited that economically they are mostly dependent on international aid
B) Population explosion is a major problem many countries are unable to cope with
C) In such countries there is a great demand for an educated and skilled workforce
D) Death rates have fallen sharply in response to improved health services.
E) Foremost among these is their poverty, but even poverty is not universal.
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2. Bacteria are minute, single-celled organisms of various shape and activity. Along with
the viruses, they are classified as the lowest forms of plant life. Bacteria are everywhere-
in soil, water, dust, and in air._____. Some turn decaying vegetable matter into manure;
others; within the human or animal body, assist in the development of certain vitamins
necessary to health.
A) There are still many bacteria whose size and shape are not known yet
B) Food poising is also caused by various kinds of bacteria
C) A high-powered microscope is needed to detect bacteria in some substances
D) Under hygienic circumstances no bacterial activity takes place
E) There are thousands of different types and many perform useful functions
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3. Vegetables eaten freshly cooked are safe. They may be unhygienic after cooking or be subject to spore germination and outgrowth if cooled slowly and stored warm. Salad
vegetables, lettuce, tomatoes, radishes, cucumber and watercress should be washed in
water for not less than 45 seconds._____.
A) In some restaurants a great variety of salad is served
B) Some people are not fond of vegetables at all
C) Water pollution is a serious danger that threatens the world
D) This is especially important in countries where crops are sometimes flooded with
water polluted with human and animal sewage
E) As a result of easy transportation and good packaging, tropical vegetables are
distributed worldwide
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4. _____. Never has a statement made anywhere been meant more literally. Without energy, nothing could walk, fly, prowl, dive, swim, chew, hiss, bark, or grow. Einstein demonstrated that even matter is a form of energy. It should be clear, then, why energy is central to one
of the cardinal principles of ecology.
A) The importance of energy to human beings is often overestimated
B) Without energy there would be nothing
C) The energy problem has been the main concern of many governments
D) The energy sources of the world are constantly being wasted
E) The committee has decided the new energy policy for the decade ahead
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5. Even the smallest organization, public or private, has a personnel function. People are an organization’s major resource and, even though the links between the personnel department and other departments are not always clear, it is important that cooperation between all departments and personnel is maintained. It is the personnel department, with the help of the other departments, which will implement any manpower policies by recruiting,
selecting and training all employees._____.
A) This shows that personnel departments carry out crucial functions in
organizations
B) That is why institutions will be forced to make huge investments
C) Certainly, some functions such as research or legal advice are carried out by
different staff
D) In fact, no government agency would have been involved in such a case
E) Initially, each department was required to submit their proposals for improvement
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6. People will exchange any goods or services for money: this is its most significant
function. In order to be a medium of exchange, money must be acceptable:_____.
Firstly, this confidence was created by using metals like gold and silver which in
themselves were valuable. The coins, notes and cheques which are used as money today
are not in themselves worth what they represent. Nevertheless, they are accepted by
everyone in business transactions.
A) this primitive method of exchange is no longer used
B) therefore, it plays a vital role in international trade
C) that is it must enjoy everyone’s confidence
D) the creation of money made business transactions much easier
E) money provides a standard measurement in business
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7. _____. There is, for example, an obvious relationship between increases in economic
wealth and general improvements in our life styles. The extent of the interrelationship
between social and economic change means that many business organizations are
influenced by changes in society.
A) The nature of family life is constantly changing
B) Most forms of social change are related to economic change
C) New economic policies adopted by the government give priority to economic
growth
D) Successive governments have tried to solve the problems resulting from economic
change
E) Population growth has a damaging effect on economic recovery
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8. There are a number of ways in which to write medical history._____. Then there is the social approach of the history of medicine which concentrates on how, when, where, by whom, and with what effect the ill were treated in times gone by. Yet, another approach is to deal with the effect of disease upon the course of human affairs.
A) It is only in the past 50 years that doctors have appreciated how dangerous
experience can be as a guide to action
B) A major area with which medical history is concerned is pathology
C) But all the strands of medical history could not possibly be woven into a coherent
and comprehensive whole?
D) Most accounts of medical developments lack coherence and are often out-dated
E) One method, and this is the one preferred by doctors, is to trace progress from
complete medical ignorance to a high level of medical competence
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9. In this age crime has become a daily event, and this has had an effect on our
reading. Readers no longer look for an escape when they pick up a crime novel._____.
That is to say, they want to learn something about the real world, and about those, good and
bad, who inhabit it.
A) Crime novelists cannot be dismissed simply because the incidents they describe
are inherently more interesting than those in other kinds
B) Today the crime novel, in all its forms, proceeds most surely and satisfactorily
from character
C) Most novelists see crime as a fascinating topic they can creatively write about
D) They read it for the same reasons they read novels of any other kind
E) A great majority of readers regard incidents in a crime novel as more fantasy
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10. The term “psychology” was coined by the ancient Greeks as a label for their philosophic probings into the human “psyche”._____. But how does this go about studying the mind scientifically? Science implies measurement. How does one measure something that can neither be seen nor heard nor touched?
A) This is why psychology has come to be known as the study of behavior
B) It is not the only discipline that is concerned with a systematic study of behavior
C) All of these disciplines are rightly regarded as behavioral sciences
D) Sociology, on the other hand, is devoted in largest part to the nature and
development of human society and community life
E) Gradually it came to mean the study of the “mind”, and still, in part, retains that
meaning
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1. _____. Size alone has obviously nothing to do with the distinction, there are some enormous colleges and some small universities. Is the difference to be found in breadth or scope of instructional offerings? Not according to the late Hastings Ranowall, whose three-volume Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages is a classic in the field.
A) Public institutions are in a different situation
B) The content and the structure of general education need to be improved
C) First, let us clarify the terms college and university
D) In most countries college has come to mean a label for a higher institution of
limited or special scope
E) A number of colleges and universities have experimented with curricular
structures
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2. For centuries, scientists and philosophers have speculated on the structure of the
universe and the existence of galaxies outside our own. However until the twentieth century,
they could do no more than speculate._____. Using giant telescopes, ultraviolet
and infrared instruments, and high-speed computers, they are studying the information
of galaxies for further insights into the nature of the cosmos.
A) Meanwhile, the study of other galaxies has led to an extraordinary insight into the
possible structure of the universe.
B) We now know, of course, that the universe is designed on a scale far more grand
C) After decades of speculation, in fact we have started to penetrate to the very center
of our own galaxy.
D) Now, however, scientists have determined that the universe is made up of
thousands of millions of galaxies
E) They have located regions that are very much disturbed with hot turbulent gases
swirling at great force about the center
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3. A long time ago, many things were explained by reference to the will of unseen deities.
_____. In our world, we explain things by reference to genes, and feel much superior for
it. Nevertheless there is not, if we contemplate about it, very much difference between saying “The gods have made him angry” and saying “He has the gene for anger.” Both are ways of
attributing a matter of personal agency to some fateful and mysterious impersonal
power.
A) Today, we regard this as a foolish and primitive approach
B) Most people are likely to want to believe in a little of both
C) Man has always struggled to change his destiny and enjoy happiness
D) In fact, human behavior is determined by an inherited genetic package
E) In the end, though, people have to figure things out for themselves
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4. Michelangelo hated to delegate work to others and would only do so in an excessive
emergency._____; and certainly no artist of note emerged from his studio.
A) His assistants, furthermore, were all exceptionally talented
B) As a result, he has been accused of not passing on his artistic skill to others
C) Naturally he was unwilling to do much of the purely manual work himself
D) As a result many of his works had to be finished by his assistants.
E) He went o great pains to train his assistants
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5. The planets are the celestial bodies that revolve round the sun in elliptical orbits._____.
There are also numerous minor planets, generally called asteroids. Today many
significant questions concerning the planets can be answered by means of probes sent to
them. These include the measurement of the magnetic field, if any, of the planets, the
study of their atmospheres and, in some cases surface conditions.
A) Among them Pluto was the last planet to be discovered in 1930 by the American
astronomer Tombaugh
B) At present only nine major planets are known, and they are different in many
respects from the fixed stars
C) Scientists have recently managed to land on the surface of Mars an extremely
efficient instrument for exploration.
D) Yet, the moon revolves round the earth and has already been explored.
E) However, Pluto is the most distant of the planets and has an orbit more elliptical
than the other planetary orbits
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6. Acupuncturists treat all kinds of conditions ranging from headaches to strokes.____. In
Britain, this very often happens, however some health insurance schemes do cover it.
A) The Chinese first developed this branch of medicine
B) Many of the people who practice acupuncture are not fully qualified
C) This kind of treatment hasn’t been approved of by the medical profession yet
D) In France and Germany acupuncture is available under national health schemes
E) Contrary to general belief this method of treatment is not in the least painful
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7. As scientific knowledge increased, so did the practical applications. The eighteenth
century witnessed what is generally called the Industrial Revolution,_____. Since then,
there has been a succession of technical innovations and fewer manual workers have
been required.
A) when machines began to do more and more of the work that had previously been
done by human beings and animals
B) as nuclear and solid-state physics are disciplines that have evolved more recently
C) for mathematics, it should be noted, is the basic tool of modern engineering
D) so the engineer must always be willing to face new challenges
E) which is likely to lead to much unnecessary suffering particularly as the workforce
is largely made up of young people
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8. _____. But most psychotherapists would say that such depression stems from buried
grief or pain. For instance someone who has been dissatisfied as a child may become
depressed as an adult.
A) One should not let oneself get depressed
B) Sometimes one may be depressed for no apparent reason
C) People who are depressed aren’t good company
D) During the last two decades problems pertaining to mental health have steadily increased
E) The crime rate goes up with depressing regularity
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9. _____. X-rays can tell a cultured pearl from a natural one because they can detect the
structure of mother of pearl in the inside. Cultured pearls are generally less expensive than
natural ones though in fact they, too, are “real” pearls.
A) The last X-ray showed an improvement in her condition
B) Cultured pearls are cheap imitations of the real thing
C) The difference between a cultured pearl and a real one is obvious at a glance
D) The pearls that are “cultured” fetch a higher price than the “natural” ones do
E) Cultured pearls are produced by inserting a bead of mother of pearl into an oyster, which then coats it in pearl
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10. Most of our misconceptions of art arise from a lack of consistency in the use of the
words “art” and “beauty”.____. We always suppose that all that is beautiful is art, or that
all art is beautiful, that what is not beautiful is not art, and that ugliness is the negation of
art. This identification of art and beauty is at the bottom of all our complexities in the
appreciation of art.
A) The painter usually expresses himself by the representation of the visible world
B) The relation between art and religion is one of the most difficult questions that we
have to face
C) Expressionism in modern art is a distinct movement, having little or nothing in
common with cubism.
D) It might be said that we are only consistent in our misuse of these words
E) Some people are quite unaware of the importance of proportion in architecture,
and have no sense of shape, surface and mass
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1. At the beginning of this century, a group of writers from scattered midwestern towns
came together in bustling, commercial Chicago. From the rough immediacy of the city,
they forged a style that was peculiarly and unsparingly realistic._____. Actually, the
critics were soon to describe Chicago as the literary capital of the US.
A) Most of them, however, eventually moved away from Chicago
B) The “Chicago Renaissance”, fuelled by these writers, soon captured the attention
of the rest of the nation
C) It is now a commonplace of literary criticism that there is a close relationship
between cities and their writers
D) Chicago is indeed a city of absorbing contrast, and not least in the field of
architecture
E) American realism differs in many obvious ways from European realism
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2. Italy is the great country of fountains, and the fountains of Rome are world famous.
_____. It was built in the time of Pope Clement XII about the middle of the eighteenth
century. The fountain and the palace behind it are a good model of the baroque style of
architecture, which gives a feeling of glory, movement and excitement.
A) The Fountain of Trevi, in Rome, is one of the most magnificent in the city
B) This style is especially effective for fountains because of the moving water
C) The water is brought underground from a spring many miles outside the city
D) A statue of Neptune in the fountain is surrounded by numerous other figures
E) The city of Rome has been the capital of Italy ever since it was founded thousands
of years ago
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3._____. His principal equipment is a leather couch for patients to lie on and a cabinet of
mysterious drugs of one kind or another to send them off to sleep. He is mainly
interested in the dreams of his clients and may use some form of hypnosis to study their
repressed thoughts and deep emotions.
A) More and more large firms are realizing the advantages offered by psychiatry
B) No one may prescribe drugs or surgery in treating mentally sick individuals unless
he is medically qualified
C) It is important to realize that psychologists are first and foremost trained as
scientists rather than as medical experts
D) Psychologists are primarily concerned with behavior and its abnormalities
E) The popular image of a psychiatrist is a fairly well-defined one
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4. The Federal Republic of Germany, founded in 1949, had as its first Chancellor Dr. Konrad Adenauer. His Christian Democrat government produced conditions of stability and
confidence in which Germany rebuilt her shattered prosperity and a viable parliamentary
democracy. Further, his work in building a special relationship with France, culminating a
treaty of friendship, was a dramatic contrast to the long convention of enmity towards
France._____.
A) Even so, Adenauer’s successor Dr. Erhard was a loyal supporter of the Adantic
Alliance
B) Furthermore, he strove relentlessly for German reunification within the boundaries of
1937, stressing West Germany’s right to speak for the whole Germany
C) The Brandt Government’s main achievements were in die field of foreign policy
D) On die other hand, Brandt had built up his reputation as mayor of West Berlin
before he was elected Chancellor
E) Indeed, the tensions within the government were heightened by protracted
negotiations between the coalition partners over policies to counter the sharply
rising trend of unemployment.
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5. It was the most horrible ice-storm in living memory. What started in the clouds as rain became ice as it hit power lines, trees and roads._____. Well over 50.000 people had to flee their freezing homes for those of luckier or better equipped neighbors.
A) It fell for days and it paralyzed much of Quebec, knocking out the power supply
to 3 million people
B) Until then it was regarded as one of the worst natural disasters ever to hit Canada
C) The cleaning up process was soon in full swing and life returned to normal
D) Old people in particular are at risk if temperatures continue to fall in this way
E) The midweek forecast for the area is far from encouraging
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6. We all know that learning is essential._____? A dictionary might tell you that learning is
acquiring knowledge through experience and study. A teacher might tell you that it is
memorizing what he wants you to know for an examination. Your manager might tell you that
it is mastery of the task you are hired to do. A psychologist might tell you that it is a
relatively permanent change in behavior due to past experience. Obviously learning takes
place in various ways and forms.
A) How is it managed
B) What exactly do you mean
C) Yet one can depend on it
D) But what exactly is it
E) Do you think it can be mastered
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7. Napoleon, the greatest of all generals, dismissed and disgraced Admiral Bruix for
questioning an order to sail his fleet._____. Consequently, twenty ships were wrecked, and
3,000 men were drowned. From this incident we can conclude that the absolute
obedience that a general can command is not appropriate at sea.
A) Even so, Bruix continued to admire and obey Napoleon
B) By the time his successor was appointed, the adverse weather conditions had been
over
C) Everyone knew that this admiral never took risks
D) Napoleon seemed to know instinctively what die right course of action would be
E) His deputy obeyed the command although the wind was strong
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8. Many sociologists are concerned that America is no longer “a melting pot,” but “a salad
bow!” .Unlike most earlier immigrants who are willing to learn English and wanted to
“melt” into American life, many of today’s immigrants do not see the need,____? How
will all this influence American’s future?
A) Why did most European immigrants settle in the cities rather than on farms
B) What was city life like for most immigrants
C) What changes can we expect in the make-up of America’s population by the year
2000
D) What hardships did the early immigrants face when they arrived in America
E) How far back can an American trace his roots
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9. ____. The faltering economy they inherited was now under additional pressure from
those newly unemployed, including the million-man army of the former regime. There
were critical shortages of foreign exchange and gold, much of which had been stolen in
the last days of the war. There were also at least two million new refugees, nearly 10 % of
the population. Nearly, the country was in a state of total bankruptcy.
A) The end of the war in Vietnam brought massive problems to the new leaders of the country
B) In the first place, all industry was nationalized by the new Vietnamese
government
C) One unexpected problem facing the new government was continuing military
activity
D) One solution to the urban problems facing Vietnam was to get people to return to
the countryside
E) In their first months in power, Vietnam’s new leaders succeeded in persuading
hundreds of thousands of people to move back to their farms
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10. Gathering information on a possible adversary or adversaries is only the start of the
intelligence process. The raw materials, once in hand, must be drawn together, analyzed,
correlated, and evaluated before it becomes useful knowledge. ____. From this
appraisal, which points to this most likely course of action the target state can chart a
course of action best designed to meet the developing condition.
A) The ethics of secret intelligence operations have long been debated
B) At this stage there emerges an estimate of the adversary’s intentions and of his
ability to achieve them
C) However the richest source is usually the secret agent, who is always a highly skilled
and well trained professional
D) Intelligence findings are, therefore, usually classified and limited in circulation
E) In recent decades, technology has enormously lengthened the reach and
sharpened the penetration of intelligence
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1. In the 1900s cancer was nearly always fatal; by the 1930s one out of five cancer patients was saved: by 1975, treatment was successful in one out of every four cancer patients._____.
A) New evidence suggest that the highest risk for lung cancer occurs in asbestos
workers who smoke
B) In fact every one knows that cancer refers to a group of over 100 different diseases
C) Today scientists and physicians believe that half of cancer patients can be saved if
present knowledge is applied promptly in every case
D) Rehabilitation of the cancer patient has become an important new concern for
social workers
E) The goal of cancer rehabilitation is to help the patient lead as normal a life as
possible
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2. What is soul? From Plato onwards, many answers have been given to this question, however no one answer has ever been found to be adequate.____. Most probably we must mean something by it.
A) His definition, quite understandably, soon returned to favor
B) Even so, the word is still in constant use
C) At a still later period soul and character were equated
D) If there had been further developments in this line they may have proved
significant
E) The next step would then have been to differentiate between soul and body.
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3. The Japanese have a strong aesthetic sense; they beautify, adorn and decorate
everything they touch.____. It is cut into an artistic shape and given a color scheme
with carefully placed pieces of tomato and herbs.
A) Apparently they get a great deal of satisfaction out of such elegant displays
B) The art of flower arrangement is particularly well developed in Japan
C) Many of these arrangements consist of only two or three flowers and a spring of
green
D) Naturally this is especially true of the women of that country
E) A sandwich in Japan is not a sandwich. It is a work of art designed to appeal not
just to the palate but also to the eye.
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4. ____. Composers such as Schubert, Schuman, Listz, and Berlioz sought a new freedom
in musical expression. Form became of less importance than content; and that content
frequently had literary connections.
A) Wordsworth is one of the best-known of all English Romantic poets
B) Mendelssohn and Brahms are the two most typical representative composers of
the Romantic era
C) The Romantic movement, which began around the year 1800 in literature, also
had its counterpart in music.
D) Indeed, the Romantic movement itself did not last very long
E) Amongst the Romantic composers, Brahms has generally been the most popular
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5. The Dalullo Islanders in the Pacific were originally the mutineers of the ship Bounty. They took possession of the island of Dalullo in 1680, and it was not until 1704 that their whereabouts were ascertained, accidentally, by a passing ship._____. In the course of years they increased so much in numbers that they were too many for the island to support. In conclusion, in 1856 they were removed by the British Government to the much larger Norfolk Island.
A) The Bounty was originally chartered to explore the Pacific islands and establish
British colonies there
B) Actually, much of their history is still controversial and there is a considerable
difference of opinion about their origin
C) Up to that date trade in the Pacific region had been their main occupation
D) The British Government sponsored a number of search projects, but all of them
ended in failure
E) The mutineers, under their leader Adams, had settled to a communal existence
and married Tahitian women
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6. Underdeveloped countries are those in which economic structure and development are held back. The causes of the situation of underdevelopment are complicated, but two opposing sets of theories dominate discussion._____. On the other hand, there are the theories that ascribe underdevelopment directly to the distortions of economic structure and the exploitation involved in the relations between the developed and the underdeveloped countries.
A) In other words, development and underdevelopment are mutually interdependent
B) This view implies that the state and process of underdevelopment in certain
countries is inevitable
C) On the one hand, there are those theories that attribute underdevelopment to the
internal characteristics of the underdeveloped countries themselves
D) Accordingly, such countries are responsible for their own underdevelopment
E) However, no country in the world is completely isolated from the current
monetary policies
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7. The purpose of a novel varies with its type. Mark Hackler’s statement has a
fundamental validity: “the object of a novel should be to instruct in morals while it
amuses.” At one extreme, some novels are expressly meant to teach, such as some
children’s novels and social novels._____. Yet, one can claim that the aim of most
novels is to reveal and stimulate thought and aspect of human behavior both individually and in personal and social relationship.
A) Hence, fantasy has become increasingly popular, especially in the form of science
fiction
B) Thus, a novel is a fictitious prose narrative, usually of more than fifty
thousand words in length
C) On the whole, Daniel Defoe is regarded as the first notable English novelist
D) At the other, some novels are meant simply as entertainment such as detective
stories and much science fiction
E) At the same time, the reading public has increased in numbers, especially among
the educated.
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8. _____. Difficult, is not it? Yet 150 years ago, that’s exactly what it was. Over a century and a half the people of Hong Kong have managed to transform that rock into a world financial center. With a government committed to free trade and free enterprise, and also due to its location in the heart of the Asia Pacific region, Hong Kong has thrived and is now the world’s eleventh largest trading economy.
A) Imagine Hong Kong as a barren rock
B) There are a host of reasons behind Hong Kong’s economic success
C) Hong Kong has a harbor which has been described as the world’s busiest
D) Imagine what one can achieve in Hong Kong
E) Think of the excellent investment opportunities Hong Kong offers today
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9. Today most of France’s 600.000 Jews are well established and assimilated, though some pockets of anti-Semitism still remain. Research earlier this decade found one in four Frenchmen complaining that there were numerous Jews in France, while one in five admitted to feelings of antipathy towards them_____.
A) During the Second World War the Vichy government introduced laws dial
banned Jews from holding a wide range of jobs.
B) According to another poll at the time, only 9% said they would not vote for a Jew
as a president.
C) As a result, from the 13th century until the French Revolution in 1789, Jews in
France as in many other places in Europe, were systematically persecuted
D) Even so the Germans still wrestle with their consciences over their attitude, past
and present, to the Jews
E) In 1995, Chirac became the first French president to admit the French state’s
responsibility in rounding up the Jews to be sent to Nazi extermination camps
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10. Africans have at last lost patience with their government. They are especially angry about declining living standards, the breakdown of law and order. The government officials in particular, are full of complaints._____. Most of them are members of militant trade unions, through which they demonstrate and go on strike. Therefore, chaos and continuous political instability can never be averted.
A) It is possible that market forces and world economic conditions can upset their
high hopes for improvement
B) Among the demonstrators are people from the countryside who have been
flooding into towns seeking a better life
C) Undoubtedly, Africans want multi-party democracy and are working hard to
achieve it
D) As most governments are short of cash, these officials are underpaid or paid late
E) Certainly, people tend to accept painful policies more readily from elected
governments than from dictators
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53. When you’re in a car the only thing you can do is to look at the countryside as if you’re looking at a
TV screen._____. Then, you’re entirely in contact with it all. You’re in the scene, not
just watching it.
A) In fact, there are several programs to choose from.
B) When the weather’s wet and windy this is a great advantage.
C) When you’re on a bicycle it’s completely different.
D) It is presumably much easier to drive in a rural area.
E) In the cities the amount of traffic is steadily increasing.
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54. The exposition is devoted to the work of L. C. Tiffany, an American designer._____. Many
of the displays are on loan from private collections and museums.
A) Much of the money he had gained, he donated to the charity.
B) In fact, he had a large family to support.
C) Some of the awards he had received were not really deserved.
D) It emphasizes the wide variety of his interests as an artist.
E) It’s an attempt to offer a selection of work of famous American designers.
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55. The Niagara Falls are one of the great natural wonders of the world._____. The Canadian
Fall is almost twice as broad as the American Fall, however it is ten feet lower. The grandeur
and the beauty of the Falls cannot be described.
A) The temperature varies accordingly.
B) Vast quantities of electric power are needed for industry.
C) That’s why some people prefer to visit the Falls in winter.
D) Even in the summer the Falls attract tourists.
E) The Falls are in two parts, separated by an island.
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56. _____. For example, military scientists detonate sophisticated bombs with them, while
surgeons perform very delicate operations by means of them. In fact laser beams can be
focused to spot one fifteenth the size of a human hair, but they are intense enough to kill
cancer cells.
A) The use of laser in medicine is still distrusted by a great majority of doctors.
B) Laser technology is still in its elementary and theoretical stage.
C) Today, laser is largely confined to laboratory situations.
D) Science fiction draws elaborately upon laser technology.
E) The use of laser beams, for a variety of purposes, is growing constantly.
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57. There are lo less than 140 countries comprising the so called “third world” know
variously as “less developed” or “developing” or “underdeveloped” or “poor” countries.
There is a great variety among them, and yet they have numerous features in
common._____. For example, some of the oil-producing countries have achieved very
high levels of income per capita while retaining many of other characteristics of less
developed countries.
A) Their natural sources are so limited that economically they are mostly dependent
on international aid.
B) Population explosion is a major problem many countries are unable to cope with.
C) In such countries there is a great demand for an educated and skilled workforce.
D) Death rates have fallen sharply in response to improved health services.
E) Foremost among these is their poverty, but even poverty is not universal.
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58. Trade unions started out as social clubs._____. It was not up to 1881 that they were
legally recognized. From that day on they rapidly grew in power. The significant question
today is whether they really use that power in the interests of the members.
A) Then they simply aimed at getting fair treatment for the workers and better
working conditions.
B) Within a short space of time, they grew into powerful organizations.
C) Consequently, membership has never been optional.
D) The movement turned out to be short-lived.
E) Surprisingly enough it hasn’t attracted.
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78. The main ends of government should be three; security, justice, and conservation
____, and they are things that only government can break about. At the same time, none of them is absolute; each may, in some circumstances, have to be sacrificed in some
degree for the sake of a greater degree of some other good.
A) These are things of the utmost importance to human happiness
B) These things, however, did not exist in ancient societies
C) However important these three values can be people were reluctant to fight for
them
D) Furthermore, societies have them in degrees
E) On the other hand one cannot to without them
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79. A helpful way to find the meaning of a word is by using contextual clues.____. Even a
very small context can sometimes be helpful. For instance, in a text on agricultural
science, we would expect to find words like crops, soil, weather conditions, and so on.
A) But we know which concepts tend to appear in the same context
B) We would, therefore, not expect to find terms taken from criminology or the
history of art
C) In the same way, we expect a word to be followed by a verb, for instance
D) A verb, for example, followed by a concept may go together with an adverb
E) A context enables us to predict what is going to come next
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80. ____. Even those students who are far behind can and ought to be able to improve.
Perhaps their extreme disability will prevent them from reaching their highest potential.
However, this doesn’t mean that they cannot move ahead.
A) These students have failed for so many years that they have developed antipathy
toward the system
B) We do not mean to say that teachers are to be blamed
C) Therefore improvement-even though very slow-is the realistic goal
D) These students, it is hoped, have not been involved in such a failure
E) In spite of making every effort, many teachers do not succeed in helping students ,
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81. The popular statement, ‘Smith’s credit is worth half a million, means that Smith
is believed to be both able and willing to pay back at least that amount. The
statement,____. In determining a candidate’s creditworthiness, credit analysts
emphasize the three ‘C’s’-character, capital and capacity to get income.
A) only applies to those who are reluctant to pay
B) is absolutely misunderstood
C) indicates clearly that debtors should not be faithful at all
D) ‘His credit is bad’ indicates lack of faith in the borrower’s willingness
E) however, puts too much blame on credit analysts
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82. Western Europe made two unsuccessful attempts to expand. The first one of these attempts
was the medieval movement in the Mediterranean.____. During this period, the attempt
to impose the political and economic dominion of West Europeans ended in a complete
failure.
A) The most convenient common name for this one is the Crusades
B) It is still unknown when this attempt was made
C) The second attempt was that of the Americans
D) In the interchange of culture, the West Europeans received a greater impress from
the Muslims
E) In the Crusades, however, they were able to gain some land
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59. Want, neglect, confusion, and misery in every shape and in every degree of intensity
filled the endless corridors of the hospital. The very building itself was shamefully
defective.____. There were not sufficient bedsteads, and the sheets were of canvas and
very coarse. There was no furniture of any kind, and empty beer bottles were used for
candle sticks. There were no basins, no towels, no soap, no brooms, no trays, or plates.
A) There had been some delay in the delivery of the medical stores sent out by
various European countries.
B) The structural defects were equaled by the deficiencies in the commonest objects
of hospital use.
C) The authorities had taken measures to ensure that there would be an adequate
supply of stretchers, bandages and the most ordinary drugs.
D) Indeed, great detachments of the wounded were all ready convertibly
accommodated.
E) The first signs of hope came when a fair supply of the most necessary objects
arrived.
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60. When the Crimean War broke out, Captain Gordon, who was to become famous in the
future as General Gordon of Khartoum, was twenty-one. Before the year was over, he had
managed to get himself transferred to the Crimea.____. Upon the declaration of peace,
he was sent to Bessarabia to help in determining the frontier between Russia and
Turkey, in accordance with the Treaty of Paris. Upon this task he was occupied for almost
two years. Then he was dispatched to China.
A) All through the war, especially during the siege of Sebastopol, he behaved with
conspicuous gallantry.
B) For the historian, the circumstances of this tragic end, so bitterly debated, and so
controversially described, stilt remain a mystery.
C) It was not in peace and rest, but in ruin and horror, that he reached his end.
D) The news of the catastrophe reached England, and a great outcry arose.
E) In fact, he was by no means in favor of the Government’s imperial policies in the
colonies.
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61. _____. The study found that morale was low among secretaries. Many of them stated
that they felt a lack of respect for their work and that they were not treated as full
members of the company’s executive team. The study also demonstrated that they were
under-utilized.
A) First of all, we have made a list of tasks that secretaries can perform in addition to
the more traditional tasks of typing and filing.
B) The changes we have made in the personnel system of the company were in part
the result of a study conducted about secretaries over a six-month period.
C) In addition to the language training that has been offered, the company is
designing a training program on office management for secretaries.
D) In upgrading office efficiency, managers also play an important role by
recognizing and appreciating the work and career aspirations of secretaries.
E) The questionnaire didn’t provide them with any useful information.
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62. It is an old wives’ tale that reading in the dark is harmful or will weaken the eyes. Apart from looking directly at the sun, or another very high intensify Light source, one
does not hurt one’s eyes by using them. True, reading with inadequate light may tire the
eye muscles.____. Admittedly, the proper level of illumination for reading is the level
with which one feels comfortable.
A) Moreover, light from behind is ideal for reading and any close work.
B) Therefore, higher illumination can actually be a disadvantage
C) On the contrary, one would feel more comfortable if the Light were better.
D) It may even cause headaches, but it does no permanent damage.
E) In fact, there are new, inexpensive, high-intensity lamps available now, which
provide higher illumination with lower wattage.
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63. A simple idea could make flying much safer. Tests in the US have demonstrated that cooling fuel
before it is put into an aircraft prevents explosive fumes building up in the fuel tanks.
For this purpose, an American company has developed a system that cools fuels to -1
degree Celsius or below, before it is put into an aircraft. This is the ideal safety
temperature and nearly eliminates the chance of an explosion in the fuel
tanks.
A) Research has revealed that the fuel delivered to an aircraft before take-off will heat
up fast if the aircraft is in the sun.
B) The explosion of the TWA flight 800 off Long Island in the United States, is
thought to have been caused by a fire in one of the aircraft’s tanks.
C) As an aircraft climbs, the drop in pressure draws more fumes into the tanks, and if
this occurs safety depends largely on the absence of a spark.
D) The US Federal Aviation Administration has since been looking at many ways of
making air travel safer.
E) The idea is to minimize vaporization, so that there is no danger of an explosion
even if static electricity or faulty wiring creates a spark.
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64. ____. Periodic environmental cues such as dawn or dusk or the change of the seasons,
regulate these clocks. There is scientific proof that matching clocks to these cues
helps animals live longer. In fact, most researchers think that the clocks help animals co-
ordinate metabolic and physiological processes for survival.
A) In the case of some insects, the biological clocks are never affected by changes in
the environment in which they live
B) Biological clocks do not always enable animals to live in harmony with their
natural habitat.
C) Biological clocks allow organisms to anticipate when to feed, mate, migrate, or, in
short, synchronize their activities with the environment.
D) Some scientists argue that biological clocks disappear over time in populations
raised in an environment with no periodic changes.
E) Many people find it difficult to adapt to a new time schedule.
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59. In an earthquake, the toll depends largely on four factors.____. Then, there is the type
and quality of housing. The time of day is a further significant factor. Lastly, there is the
population density.
A) The first is the magnitude of the earthquake itself
B) All of these are outside our control
C) Of these only two can be controlled by man
D) If only we knew when an earthquake was likely to occur, we could be better
prepared
E) In these recent earthquakes, the toll of human life was needlessly great
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60. Economic liberalization, which is itself a vague term, occurs in a variety of forms and in
many countries.____. With a few notable exceptions, nevertheless, nearly every country in
the world has been affected by this trend. In the industrialized world, it was epitomized in
the ends and policies of the Thatcher and Reagan governments. Also, encouraged by
the World Bank and IMF, most less developed countries, including India, Brazil,
Argentina, Mexico have made some movement toward economic liberalization.
A) In fact, the movement toward liberalization relates to the change in thinking in
the economics profession in the 1950s and 1960s
B) Even Vietnam has taken some small steps toward opening up its economy to the
outside world
C) This policy recognizes the role of the state in the stabilization of a country’s
economy
D) Next, however, in the question of the relation of these trends to the overall global
processes of economic development and social modernization
E) It is, therefore, difficult, if not impossible, to produce a list of countries that can be
said to have fully liberalized
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61. D. H. Lawrence differed in many ways from his contemporaries. Especially, he wrote
with more urgency and intensity than most.____. This is in keeping with this subject
matter that is so often the dreams and aspirations of man.
A) This subject matter is all too often the personal relationships of opposite
characters
B) In fact, there is a poetic quality to much of his work
C) He knew at first-hand the hardships of a coal miner’s life
D) It was the working class and its problems that he presented most accurately
E) Actually, he was someone of a rebel himself
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62. Mercury, which is the smallest of all planets, is the closest to the sun at a little more than
one-third of the earth’s average distance.____. It was first visited in March, 1974 by the
space-craft Mariner 10 that passed within a few hundred kilometers of it. The craft
relayed pictures on the two following passes in September, 1974 and March, 1975. It still
goes on to revisit Mercury every 176 days.
A) The relayed pictures showed that the planet has an approximately 59-day rotation
period
B) It is only recently that we have been able to gain any accurate information about it
C) Mariner 10 measured a small magnetic field at the surface
D) Today we are in possession of vast amount of information about the planets
E) Obviously, it will take many thousands of years to reach even the nearest stars
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63. In spite of technological improvements which allow exploration to proceed rapidly, it is no
simple matter to obtain oil from undersea fields. Prospecting must be followed by the
leasing of potential oil-producing areas, and then by drilling to see whether oil is actually
there. Offshore drilling platforms must be contracted most proficiently so as to withstand
the force of waves, especially during the season for hurricanes.____.
A) Therefore, the technical difficulties of far more extensive offshore operations do
not discourage specialists in petroleum engineering
B) Naturally, the search for petroleum has repeatedly led geologists to sedimentary
rocks under the seas
C) It is a fact that by no means all of the land resources of petroleum have been
discovered
D) In fact, of California, Texas, and Louisiana, oil companies have drilled into the
sediments of the shelf and are obtaining oil
E) Indeed, winds, storm waves, fogs and the corrosive effects of sea water upon metal
structures are the major hazards that must be faced and overcome in offshore oil
production
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64. National self-reliance in disaster relief is a goal toward which all countries must strive.
But, international assistance may be required to provide locally unavailable
resources and skills for relief and rehabilitation. Many agencies, associations, groups
and governments support countries affected by natural disasters. ____. If properly
coordinated, international relief is beneficial to disaster victims.
A) The rehabilitation period provides an opportunity for making major changes in
health-care methods, for during it people are receptive to new ideas
B) The arrival of unsolicited medical assistance, particularly in the form of volunteer
physicians, may be a persistent problem
C) A major disaster with high mortality leaves orphaned children whose care may
become the responsibility of health agencies
D) Each has different objectives, expertise, and financial support to offer, and over a
hundred may become involved in any single major disaster
E) Funding long-term projects from international resources may prove difficult since
many organizations are reluctant to take on such expenditures
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