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YDS  Testleri 9

1.
 
 
(I) The world is growing more and more environmentally conscious. (II) Or else, the
supply of raw materials would attract attention. (III) This is producing some interesting
developments. (IV) Some car manufacturers, for example, are now beginning to give
priority to recycling techniques. (V) It is this, rather than improved performance, that is
receiving attention in the advertisement.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E)V

<b7

2.
 (I) The film industry is going through bad times. (II) This is partly because studio heads
are out-of-touch with their audiences. (III) Television offers no serious competition
against the film industry. (IV) It is apparent that they don’t appreciate that adult audiences
want movies they can talk about. (V) The audience want to be taken to places they’ve
never been to, as well.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<c7

3.
 (I) Banking services in Hungary are expected to improve dramatically this year. (II) The
installation of a computerized interbank settlement system will greatly aid this. (III)
Typical banking transactions on the new network will take less than two minutes. (IV)
Therefore, no scheme for keeping down inflation has been forthcoming. (V) Moreover
the capacity of the services will increase threefold.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<d7

4.
 (I) The neuromuscular disorder known as ALS strikes 5.000 Americans each year. (II) The ailment involves the progressive death of motor neurons. (III) Some families are even
more susceptible to the other condition. (IV) As the condition advances, sufferers lose
the ability to speak, to swallow and finally to breath. (V) Only a few of them survive more than
five years.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<c7

5.
 (I) Today the West is in the grip of a second industrial revolution. (II) The first caused a
shift from agriculture to industry. (III) So, one solution to the problem of unemployment became apparent. (IV) The new revolution is shifting the economy away from conventional
manufacturing
industries to those
based
upon
information, services and new
technologies. (V) Naturally one can’t help wondering whether there’ll be a third industrial
revolution in the future.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E)V

<c7

6.
 (I) Obviously oil imports haven’t put a great strain on the national budget. (II) Inflation has become one of the country’s most essential economic problems. (III) This is because it
generates instability in the economy. (IV) This in turn reduces capital investment which
harms productivity and leads to a decline in living standards. (V) So there is a chain
process which is hard to break.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<a7

7.
 
 
(I) Before Galileo, it was believed that a lifeless body would not move by itself. (II) It was further believed that such a body, once in motion would gradually come to rest. (III)
Experimental science was not even permitted during the Middle Ages. (IV) But Galileo
and Newton proceed according to the laws of physics. (V) And that once they are set in
motion they will go on indefinitely.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<c7

8.
 
 
(I) The acts of a single man are as a rule insignificant nowadays. (II) But the acts of
groups are more significant than they used to be. (III) If one man refuses to work, that is
his own affair. (IV) After all, everyone stops working when he retires. (V) But if there is a
strike in a vital industry the whole community suffers.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<d7

9.
 
 
(I) In fact London dates back to Roman times. (II) Greater London, with its nine million
population, includes the City and the County London. (III) It includes the outer
suburbs and much land that looks more urban than rural, as well. (IV) There are no definite
boundaries, but it covers an area of some twenty miles radius from Oxford Circus. (V) It
is surrounded by a “green belt” and there it is forbidden to build.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<a7

10. (I) A thick layer of snow on a steep slope is always liable to avalanche. (II) A lot of
avalanches occur in the Breos. (III) A very small disturbance may set it in motion. (IV) The
vibrations caused by a passing train are enough. (V) Once in motion it gains in speed
and crushes everything in its path.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<b7

1.
 
 
(I) At the end of 1974, the prospects of the country were far from rosy. (II) To begin with, the rate of inflation was steadily going up. (III) It only dropped temporarily in May and
June. (IV) So were the unemployment figures. (V) And the cold winter served to
aggravate all the problems.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<e7

2.
 
 
(I) It is the accuracy of laser surgery that makes it so effective. (II) The laser beam can
also remove bone that makes it invaluable in ear surgery. (III) This accuracy can be
increased by sending the beam along fibers of glass finer than a human hair. (IV) These
can carry a beam around corners and direct it precisely at a tiny area. (V) Therefore, there is

 virtually no risk of damaging healthy cells.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<b7

3.
 
 
(I) Correct tyre pressure is more vital than many people realize. (II) The right
pressure opens up the tread so its edges grip the road. (III) In wet weather this is

obviously of prime significance. (IV) The spare tyre should also be checked occasionally
to make sure it is fit for use. (V) But even when the weather is dry, tyre pressure should
be checked and adjusted regularly.

 A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)W
 

E)V

<d7

4.
 
 
(I) Modern theory envisages that the Sun and Solar System evolved from a primitive
nebula. (II) About 4 billion years ago, for reasons unknown, this nebula started to
contract. (III) In the outer regions temperatures remained even lower. (IV) The rotation
then speeded up, causing the cloud to flatten into a disk. (V) In the densest part of this
disk a proto-sun formed.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 

E)V

<c7

5.
 
 
(I) Written communication is the basis of much communication in the business world. (II)Letter writing, however, has gone into a decline since the invention of the telephone.
(III) It includes letters, reports, memoranda and telex messages. (IV) It has the
disadvantage of being slower than oral communication. (V) However it has the great
advantage of providing a record of transactions so that disagreements can be avoided
and accuracy checked.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<b7

6.
 
 
(I) Most children, from time to time, show aggressive tendencies. (II) This is entirely
normal, and should be regarded as so. (III) Indeed, children should be encouraged to
express their aggression fully through creative activities and exploration. (IV) For this, a
safe, suitable background must be provided. (V) In fact, more accidents occur indoors
than they do outdoors.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<e7

7.
 
 
(I) There are several reasons why traditional medicine distrusts the practitioners of
alternative medicine. (II) Herbalists think they can cure a wide range of conditions with
plant substances alone. (III) These people like to look beyond the immediate symptoms
to the body’s total state. (IV) They aim to restore health by helping the body to heal itself.
(V) Their skill lies in knowing which plants are beneficial in which circumstances.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<a7

8.
 
 
(I) In recent years notable results have been achieved in the field of organ
transplants. (II) Gradually we are learning more about the chemistry of memory. (III) This
also concerns the genes. (IV) Previously, tissues could not be transplanted. (V) Now by
using genetically identical twin tissues, surgeons are able to do successful organ
transplants.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<b7

9.
 
 
(I) It is true that the Arabs carefully studied Greek thought, and translated into Arabic
many outstanding Greek writings on medicine, science, and philosophy. (II) Europe, even
when at war with them, eagerly learned from their scholars. (III) Many European students
attended Arab universities in Spain and returned home as admirers of Arab learning. (IV)
Actually, the Western impact on the Arab world has been enormous. (V) Therefore, medieval
Europe was greatly indebted to the Arabs.

A) I
 

B)II
 
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<d7

10.
 
(I) Financially, 1975 was a difficult year for the airline industry, with only insufficient
increases in traffic. (II) In the U.S. the condition was particularly bad. (III) There, the
airlines put most of the blame on the continuing rise in fuel prices. (IV) The economic
recession combined with inflation lowered demand for railways. (V) In Europe, however,
air traffic continued to increase but at a slower rate than in recent years.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<d7

1.
 
 
(I) Men of science and philosophers from very early times, have attempted to define life. (II) They even tried to prove that all living things posses souls. (III) Nearly all living things
grow during some part of their life. (IV) Aristotle, for instance, who may be looked upon
as the “father of biological research,” tried hard to establish the presence of souls in
plants. (V) However for many centuries it was not realized that to define life is practically
impossible.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<c7

2.
 
 
(I) In the contemporary world, political crime poses cruel political and moral problems. (II) These problems are particularly acute in more democratic societies. (III) At the other end
of the political spectrum, a totalitarian regime is almost immune to terrorism. (IV) For
here the security apparatus of the state makes it almost impossible for terrorist groups
even to exist. (V) Therefore, among the reasons of terrorism can be mentioned bad
economy.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<e7

3.
 
 
(I) Throughout history, the Mediterranean has served as beneficial commercial route
between the East and the West. (II) Those who visit the Mediterranean are invariably
impressed with its unity. (III) Everywhere it is the same, (IV) For the shades of difference
here is less important than the resemblances. (V) Nevertheless, this unity is the result of
aggressive contrast: sea and mountain, sea and desert.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<a7

4.
 
 
(I) Chemistry is the science of the elements and their compounds. (II) It is concerned with the laws of their combination and behavior under various circumstances. (III) This term is
generally restricted to mean the use in war or poisonous gases. (IV) It had its roots in
alchemy and has gradually developed into a science of vast magnitude and importance.
(V) Its major fields are organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, and physical chemistry.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<c7

5.
 
 
(I) Racism is the doctrine that one race is inherently superior or inferior to others. (II) It
has no connection whatever with the study of race as a concept. (III) Furthermore, it is not
concerned with the investigation of racial discrepancies which is a science practiced by the
physical anthropologists. (IV) Racism is simply a vulgar superstition believed in by the
ignorant of the mentally unbalanced. (V) Today in the world anti-Semitism is not so
widespread as it used to in the past.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<e7

6.
 
 
(I) The balance of payments has lately been a serious problem particularly in Eastern
Europe. (II) The late 1950s and the early 1960s saw a decline in British competitiveness.
(III) As a result, the British share in world exports of manufacturers fell steadily. (IV) On
the other hand, there was a rapid increase in imports of manufactured goods. (V)
As a result, the balance of payments deteriorated, and the country was heading
towards a major economic crisis.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<a7

7.
 (I) In the early 1900s, a variety of
film production companies appeared in the United States and entered into severe competition with each other. (II) it was in the late 1920s, however, that the golden era of Hollywood really began. (III) Many companies then created stars still popular and famous today. (IV) Financial difficulties became even more pressing
during the depression years. (V) Among these, the best known and most famous of
all was, of course, Charles Chaplin.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<d7

8.
 
 
(I)
 
 Delecroix’s paintings fall into three distinct groups. (II) One must also be reminded
that he was devoted to music, and often spoke of his palette as though it were a scale on
which he composed harmonies. (III) There are his portraits, noteworthy for their
astonishing psychological perception. (IV) Then there are his historical pieces, large
ambitious subjects drawn from the romantic literature for which he had so much
sympathy. (V) Lastly there are a few landscapes, of pure lyrical content.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<b7

9.
 (I) On June 1977 the first free parliamentary elections for 41 years were held in Spain. (II) This was a decisive step on the road from dictatorship to democracy, and in July the new
two-chamber parliament replaced the old “Cortes” of General Franco. (III) In fact, the
most vital issue for the future of Spain was the separatist Basque terrorism in the
north of the country. (IV) The first duty of the new government and parliament was the
drawing up of a new democratic constitution. (V) Also, in the meantime, a wide range of
political and economic reforms were introduced, end in the 1980s Spain emerged as a
major economic power in Europe.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C )III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<c7

10.
 
 (I) While the earliest European immigrants to America were farmers, many city dwellers came to the new land as well. (II) These new comers were attracted to the bustling urban centers. (III) As a result, American cities expanded enormously. (IV) The history of the
United States is filled with accounts of people who came from all over the world to settle
here. (V) New York, for instance, which had a population of only sixty thousand in 1600,
grew to city of more than one million people in 1860.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<d7

1.
 (I)
 
 As we live and grow, we learn the culture of the society in which we live. (II)
Sociologists tell us that the most important elements of culture that we should learn are
values, norms and roles. (III) While values are rather general, norms are quite specific.
(IV) A collection of the norms connected with a particular position or activity in a society
is called a role. (V) History shows us that disagreements over vital political issues always
create violent conflict within a society.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<e7

2.
 
 
(I) Getting through a day without being exposed to the media would be unthinkable. (II)
Both directly and indirectly the media have a profound effect on our everyday lives. (III) What
we eat, that we buy, what we do, even what we think is affected by the media. (IV) Yet,
the question is whether what the media provides us with, can always be good and
revealing. (V) According to one study, 64% of the American public turns on television for
most of its news.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<e7

3.
 
 
(I) Writing in the 1930s, J. M. Keynes was mainly concerned with unemployment. (II) According to him, the question was why it persisted. (III) Since 1945, the twin objectives of economic growth and full employment have been the primary concern of developed countries
throughout the world. (IV) His own answer to this was that employment was determined
by the level of output and this was determined by demand. (V) Thus, the level of
employment could be regulated by managing the level of demand.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<c7

4.
 
 
(I) From the fourteenth century onwards, particularly in Italy scholars, poets, and artists
began to take a new interest in learning. (II) In almost all the city-states of Northern Italy
the power had been seized by certain great families. (III) Instead of studying chiefly
technology and the writings of the medieval philosophers, they now turned to the
philosophers and poets of classical antiquity and began to study them intensively. (IV)
The minds of men were now set free and they began to think as they pleased. (V) This
new learning soon spread to the rest of Europe and the “Renaissance” was well under
way.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<b7

5.
 (I) By about 3500 B.C., there had developed in Egypt and Mesopotamia a highly advanced social and economic life. (II) Copper and bronze were being used though on a limited scale, and trading contacts with other countries had been established. (III) Most archaeologists think that civilization first developed in the Middle East. (IV)
Many of these contacts were with Syria, which, lying between Egypt and Mesopotamia,
had participated at an early date in the general advance of material and cultural
development. (V) Furthermore, Syria was endowed with a number of resources that were
lacking in Egypt and Mesopotamia.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<c7

6. (I) In 1965 when Mrs. Indra Gandhi became the prime minister of India, she faced serious
political problems in the country. (II) For example, she followed a pro-Soviet foreign
policy and hence, did not react against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. (III) In the first
place, she had to consolidate her authority in the Congress Party against the opposition
from the party’s old guard. (IV) Moreover she had to deal with the terrorist activities in various
parts of the country. (V) Nevertheless, she took courageous steps in her rue and won a
landslide election victory in 1971.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<b7

7. (I) To understand the British system of government, it is important to appreciate the
significance of the party system. (II) Naturally, parties exist to form governments, and in
Britain the path to this goal lies in the House of Commons, for the party which obtains a
majority of seats has the right to form the government. (III) Since the 17th century, two
parties have usually been predominant in British politics. (IV) Until the 1920s these were
the Tories (the Conservatives) and the Whigs (the Liberals), and since the 1930s the
Conservatives and the Labor. (V) Up to now many reforms have been introduced to improve
the local election system.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<e7

8. (I) In October 1973 the Arab oil-producing states took the decision to restrict oil supplies
to the West and raised oil prices. (II) The limitation of supplies was initiated as a short-
run weapon in the Arab-Israeli conflict. (III) Indeed, it revealed a potential for obtaining
higher prices, which had not previously been exploited by the oil countries. (IV) Most
economics argue that the exploitation of North Sea oil has been a mixed blessing for
Britain. (V) Being aware of this potential, the international oil cartel OPEC raised the price
for a barrel of crude oil from 1.75 US dollars in September 1973 to 7.00 US dollars in
January 1974.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<d7

9. (I) Generally, the term “abstract art” is used to describe new movements and techniques
in plastic arts in the 20th century. (II) The underlying principle of this art is that it is not
the subject at all but form and color which really possess aesthetic value. (III) Obviously,
we cannot disregard the fact that vitality of art thought history is closely bound up with
some form of religion. (IV) Most art historians claim that the impressionist, especially
Cezanne, can be considered to be the pioneers of this art. (V) Also, there are some who
strongly argue that the origins of abstract art are to be sought in the designs of primitive
people as well as folk art.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<c7

10. (I) Throughout the Middle Ages Christian Europe launched many allied expeditions
against the Muslim rule in Spain to bring it to an end. (II) Historically the ancient palace of
the Muslim rulers at Granada in Spain is named “Alhambra”. (III) Originally, it was
designed, built, and developed into an architectural masterpiece in the 13th and 14th
centuries. (IV) Unfortunately, the stylistic uniformity of the palace was spoiled when in
the 16th century Charles V turned part of it into a modern residence. (V) But, the
most beautiful parts of the interior, covering the Court of Alberca and the Court of Lions,
have survived and preserve their original charm.

A)I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<a7

 

1 (I) It was Engels in 1844 who first referred to the Industrial revolution in Britain. (II) According to him, the transformation of Britain from a merely agricultural country into a predominantly industrial one was of a revolutionary nature. (III) In the 19th century Britain colonized most of Africa and South East Asia. (IV) In fact, the Industrial Revolution had begun in the late eighteenth century with the mechanization of the textile industry. (V) This was soon followed by major technological and other industrial developments which made

 Britain the most prosperous country in the world.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D) IV
 
 

E) V

<c7

2.
 
 
(I) For about 40 years, relations have been frozen between the United States and Cuba. (II) This is mainly owing to the glaring differences between the regimes of the two
countries. (III) Many, on both sides, have ceased to hope for an improvement in the
relations. (IV) More surprisingly, the recent papal trip to the island has had an effect in
Washington, too. (V) Mr. Castro will not ease his grip until he dies; nor will the policy
makers in Washington be ready to lift American embargo against trade with Cuba.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<d7

3.
 
 
(I) Agricultural teaching in West African schools invariably meets with apathy. (II) Even
so, agricultural education is a necessity, but it should be directed towards the farmer
himself. (III) He needs instruction in new techniques. (IV) The greater part of these students
acquire a lifelong distaste for all forms of activity. (V) He needs information on new
and profitable cash crops and potential local markets, as well.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<d7

4.
 
 
(I) Some historians claim that cannibalism did not exist before 1492. (II) They would
argue that it was invented by Columbus. (III) Of course, this is not to deny that
cannibalism was unknown in the ancient world. (IV) It is apparent to have always existed, or to have been said to exist, usually in “other” places. (V) Thus, it is true that the word
“cannibal” is a corruption of the Amerindian word “Carib”, which means “bold” or
“fierce”.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E)V

<e7

5.
 
 
(I) As forests are cut down, many wild animals are finding it harder to survive. (II) Unfortunately the range of the leopard, for example, is but a fraction of what it formerly was. (III) They are, for example no longer to be found in Europe proper. (IV) Fortunately, there are
instances of such endangered species managing to reestablish themselves. (V) In the
Caucasus and northern Iran there are still some, but their numbers are decreasing
rapidly.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<d7

6.

(I) They hadn’t expected to see rolling hills dotted by family farms with herds of cattle
grazing around. (II) Richardson Country is in the south-eastern corner of Nebraska,
abutting Kansas and Missouri and washed by the Missouri River. (III) It is the heart of the
heartland, the American mythologized, in 1943, by Oscar Hammersteint in the lyrics of

 “Oklahoma” (IV) But, today, this part of the prairie America continues to own very
little of its pastoral and traditional charm. (IV) Unfortunately, industrialization and
reckless urbanization have destroyed much of it and turned the place into a wasteland.
A) I
 

B)II
 
 

C)III
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<a7

7. (I) As recently as the 1980s, poverty rates among the elderly in Britain were more than
double those of the population at large. (II) Many specialists and policy makers contend that
the problems of the retirement system have often been exaggerated. (III) A lot of old people were largely dependent on the charity of their children and on local assistance programs. (IV) But, by 1995 most of these people had improved their living conditions. (V) This was partly owing to
the fact that the country had become more prosperous in general.

 A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<b7

8. (I) The Morley Gallery has once again caught the attention of the public. (II) Its exhibition
program is richly varied and focuses on the less well-known painters (III) In the current
exhibition, some of the paintings of Joseph Hayward a promising young painter, are on
show. (IV) The Gallery is situated on the outskirts of London, but within easy reach of the
metro. (V) Examples of his early work, such as a large watercolor of a garden, are also
included.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<d7

9.
 
 
(I) A camera is now being developed that scans the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the human body. (II) The police, after all, never do show any passion for technological
innovations. (III) It may prove to be a great asset in crime detection as hidden objects –
which distort that radiation – show up as cold sports. (IV) It can defect weapons and
drugs hidden beneath layers of clothing. (V) Furthermore, it has apparently dangerous side
effects.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<b7

10.
 
 (I) The role of the parents in child development is of great significance. (II) Once a child
starts school he finds himself in a totally different ambiance. (III) Parents are
responsible for the physical needs of their children and for protecting them. (IV) They are
also their first teachers, and perhaps their most essential teachers. (V) Good parents
provide their children with the emotional security and the intellectual stimulation that are
essential for a happy and successful life.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<b7

59.
 
 (I) The simple word “art” is generally associated with plastic or visual arts. (II) Properly
speaking, however, it should also contain the arts of literature and music. (III) There are
certain characteristics common to all the arts. (IV) There are at least a dozen recent
definitions of beauty. (V) Foremost among them is the artist’s desire to please.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<d7

60.
 
 (I) The iron blast furnace is an efficient device for producing large quantities of molten
iron. (II) Even so, the blast furnace uses its fuel efficiently. (III) One major advantage of
this type of furnace is its exceptional reliability. (IV) The other important advantage is its
high rate of iron production. (V) Its only disadvantage is its huge size which makes it.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<b7

61.
 
 (I) Knowledge of statistics is now an important part of our normal daily living. (II)
There are many reasons for this. (III) The main reason, however, is that, owing to
technological and socioeconomic developments, today statistics is being widely used.

(IV) There is hardly a newspaper, for example, that does not make use of statistical data.

(V) Therefore, training in statistics, in fact, training in the scientific method.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<e7

62.
 
 (I) People interested in European affairs have lately been faced with a series of
unprecedented and startling events in Europe. (II) Yet, even when there were clear signs
of impending change, we couldn’t see these events coming. (III) However, the
transitions in Eastern Europe face greater troubles than those that have taken place
elsewhere. (IV) Every time, we have played down their significance and counseled
caution in assessing their importance. (V) When called upon to forecast, we have
repeatedly opted for optimism.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<b7

63.
 
 (I) It may not be difficult to define what living things are, since the average living thing is so
obviously alive. (II) Men of science of philosophers, from very early times, have been
puzzled about the structure of the universe. (III) In fact, however, it is really very
difficulty to make an accurate scientific definition. (IV) All that can be said is that living
thins possess certain characteristics in common. (V) It is these that provide the power
which results in the phenomenon of what is called life.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<b7

64.
 
 (I) Fears of one kind or another are nearly universal in early childhood. (II) Yet,
psychologists disagree about the methods used in childcare. (III) Experimental studies
have shown that their highest incidence is at around three years of age. (IV) Fear is, of
course, a normal response to real danger. (V) Nevertheless, the little child can be as
intensively afraid of imaginary danger as of real danger.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<b7

64.
 
 (I) There are few more infuriating situations for the motorist than to be stuck behind a
lorry. (II) Especially when grinding its way up a steep hill and completely blocking the
way ahead. (III) An anti-lorry sentiment, though understandable, is foolish. (IV) The
annoyance is thus engendered. (V) Because lorries are generally known as to be the real
cause of traffic jams.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<c7

65.
 
 (I)
 
 We see this economic process at work most clearly in the United States. (II) So far
as women and work is concerned, the trend there has been decidedly retrograde in
recent years. (III) The proportion of women taking higher education has dropped
noticeably since the second world war. (IV) In this case American women are bound to
be trained for ill-paid jobs below their real ability. (V) This is simply because the average
earning of women are lower than those of Negroes.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<e7

66.
 
 (I)
 
 Every individual looks at the other members of the group. (II)
 If they do not act, perhaps, he or she will not act. (III) The individual’s inaction is not an outcome of indifference.
(IV) Yet no individual in a group can act differently. (V) The theory is that if he or she
were alone, the person would probably take action.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<d7

67.
 
 (I) It was thought that once everyone could read the printed word, they would keep
themselves property informed of what was going on around them. (II) True enough, Jan
Gutenberg soon after invented the printing machine and people could then, afford to buy
books. (III) Nevertheless, events have by no means justified this optimism. (IV) It turned out to
be that people lost their interest in reading. (V) Thus, paving the way for their unawareness.
A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<b7

68.
 
 (I)
 
 Educators vary in their opinions on the ultimate purpose of education. (II) Some
think children of the same or similar intelligence can be taught together with the same
method. (III) One view is shared by those who suppose that the aim of education is
indoctrination. (IV) The other is held by those who believe in pure education. (V)
According to liberal thinkers, education serves to cultivate intellect without directly
influencing the mind.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<b7

69.
 (I) The current age is full of sudden catastrophes. (II) People fear the hurricane
and the earthquake. (III) Yet environmental pollution is more real danger. (IV)
Chemicals, for example, must be purified to make the world safe. (V) Even our
hearing is slowly being damaged by the level of noise we have to suffer.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<d7

53. (I) The collapse of the economies of southeast Asia in the early years of the decade was
later succeeded by that of Korea, the classic tiger economy. (II) What happens next in a
region that is now strewn with the wrecks of so-called economic miracles? (III) This
leaves Europe and United States as important mass markets. (IV) The assumption that
recession will spread in the region owing to capital flight and belt-tightening is most
plausible. (V) This will deepen as foreign investors increasingly reduce their profile in
southeast Asia.
A) I
 
 

B)II
 
 

C)III
 

D)IV
 
 

E)V

<c7

54.
 
 (I) The first clear fact about the mass media system is that it is not controlled by
corporations: it is made up of them. (II) Many large corporations are active in the Third
World and in the arms trade. (III) Just as corporations do not control the car industry but
the car industry itself is corporations, so the media consists of large corporations, all
in the business of maximizing profits. (IV) Furthermore, media corporations are not simply
businesses; they are also owned by even larger parent corporations. (V) It is these parent
corporations which influence and formulate the media policies and practices.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<b7

55.
 
 (I) Once, when people dreamt, they dreamt of America: of its high wages, comforts, huge
cars and high technology. (II) “If only we could live there or make our country like it,”
millions said to themselves. (III) Yet, no more. (IV) Today, only the desperately poor, the
deluded or the oppressed wish to emigrate to America or build their countries in its
image. (V) In conclusion, the rate of demographic growth in America has shown a downward
trend in recent decades.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<e7

56.
 
 (I) The telephone, in fact, has come a long distance since Alexander Graham Bell invented
the first crude transmitter in 1876. (II) Today we can place calls from automobiles, ships
at sea and planes in the air. (III) Using the phone system, we can fax documents around
the world. (IV) Most local telephone markets are still monopolized by one company, but
here, too, competition is growing. (V) In a little while we will be able to dial up images of
computerized data.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<d7

57.
 
 (I) An international team of researchers has finished a study of the spread of HIV in
Africa. (II) Safe sex education must to be targeted at women and men in countries such
as Kenya and Zambia. (III) The consequences demonstrate that teenage women and girls in Africa are upto six times as likely to be infected with HIV as males of the same age. (IV) Their findings
also suggest that the AIDS epidemic in Central and East Africa is being caused by older
men infecting young girls, who then pass the virus onto their children. (V) In the worst-
affected regions, up to half of all pregnant women are now infected with HIV, and 40
percent of them are teenage girls who have had sex with men aged 35 and over.

A) I
 

B)II
 

C)III
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<b7

58.
 
 (I) It must be stated at the outset that it is the successful farmers with the best quality
land who have usually benefited from all the government support. (II) Conventionally the
farmers on the Malwa plateaus in Central India cultivated a large number of unirrigated

 wheat varieties. (III) With the introduction to this region in the late sixties of electricity,
 and the technology for digging deep wells, they were induced to change to irrigated
farming. (IV) Furthermore, to develop high- yielding varieties of wheat appropriate for
Irrigated farming, the government set up a wheat, research center in the area. (V) This
was then backed up with the organization of special training courses for farmers.
A) I
 
 

B)II
 
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 
 

E) V

<a7

53.
 
 (I) Today the worst problem facing the government of South Africa is unemployment. (II)
This now affects a third of the population and is rising rapidly. (III) In fact, the end of
South Africa’s isolation from the world meant that companies had cut jobs to be
competitive. (IV) Furthermore, in order to meet the government’s tight deficit targets, there
are no cuts being made in the number of the public-service staff, which makes

unemployment even worse. (V) In the economic sector, the condition is even more

hopeful, for there has been a wave of reforms and mergers among banks and insurance
companies.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<e7

54.
 
 (I) For governments and institutions, disaster preparedness is of crucial importance. (II)
This is particularly so in countries where the risk of disaster is real. (III) As disaster
preparedness is a multi-sectoral activity, the functions and respective responsibilities of
each sector must be clearly defined. (IV) In fact, few types of natural disaster can be
predicted accurately. (V) Moreover, a precise division of labor among institutions and
agencies, and detailed pre-disaster planning will reduce enormously the adverse effects
of a disaster.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<d7

55.
 
 (I) In Brazil, as in much of Latin America, oil in particular has a long been a political
symbol. (II) This has been represented by the countries federal oil company Petrobras.
(III) Therefore, mismanagement and subsidized pricing paralyzed the system with
dept. (IV) When founded in 1952, it was regarded as an icon of emancipation from foreign
economic domination. (V) But, today the Brazilian government has taken serious steps to
stop, though privatization, Petrobras’a oil monopoly.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<c7

56.
 
(I) Fish farming, which is practiced in many countries has developed into an industry in
current years. (II) This has made scientific research into fish biology of crucial importance.
(III) Therefore, advances in disease control and in fish nutrition are likely to be impressive in
the years ahead. (IV) Fish farming has succeeded only where it can compete with other
forms of food production in terms of costs. (V) Furthermore, for most of fish species,
genetic improvements through breeding have already been achieved to make the
industry profitable.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<d7

57.
 
 (I) Heat stroke happens under extremely hot and moist conditions. (II) In either case, one
should send urgently for medical help. (III) This is because the evaporation of sweat cannot
take place in an atmosphere already saturated with moisture. (IV) The patient becomes
burning hot with a red dry skin and a fast, forceful pulse. (V) He may suddenly collapse
and go into coma.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<b7

58.
 
(I) Archeological evidence has shown that the earliest libraries were built by the
Sumerians. (II) All libraries are classified to facilitate reference, and the favorite system is
the Dewey Decimal System, that divides the entire field of knowledge into ten main
classes. (III) These are General Works, Philosophy, Religion, Sociology, Phonology,
Natural Science, Useful Arts and Applied Science, Fine Arts, Literature and History. (IV)
Each class is again subdivided into ten main divisions. (V) Then, each
division is marked by decimals within itself.

A) I
 
 

B)II
 

C)III
 
 

D)IV
 

E) V

<a7

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